Ecology and agro-meteorology.
Ecosystems and agro-ecosystems, food chains, energy fluxes in natural and agricultural ecosystems, carrying capacity, agricultural systems. Climate and climate classification, global change and its effects on agro-systems.
The Radiation: physical laws, short and long wave radiation, Net Radiation, Earth radiation balance.
The Atmosphere: composition and physical properties, radiation-atmosphere interactions, the green-house effect, the wind. The temperature: air and soil temperatures, soil and atmosphere thermal balance, daily and seasonal temperature variations.
The water: water cycle, air humidity, atmospheric precipitations and evapotranspiration.
The soil: Composition and properties of the agricultural soil, C cycle and soil organic matter balance. Physical properties: texture, porosity, hydrology, air content.
Plant community concepts: crop structure, growth analysis, development. Potential production: CO2 assimilation, radiation interception, maintenance and growth respiration. Actual production: growth rate and growth duration, biomass partitioning, source-sink relationships.
Agronomy and agro-systems management.
Soil tillage classifications, aims and limitations of different soil tillage systems (deep plowing, shallow plowing, minimum tillage, no tillage, etc.)
Water management: Potential and actual Crop evapotranspiration (Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficients), soil water balance, soil available water, crop water use efficiency, irrigation requirement, irrigation management, irrigation systems.
Fertilization: N, P and K in plant and soil, fertilization laws, mineral and organic fertilizers, fertilization technique, fertigation.
Crop rotation, crop consociation, competition and facilitation. Weed control. Sowing and transplant techniques. Seed production and seed quality analysis.
Ecology and agro-meteorology.
Agronomy and agro-systems management
Water and irrigation management, irrigation systems.
Fertilization: mineral and organic fertilizers, fertigation.
Crop rotation, crop consociation, Weed control, Seed production and seed quality analysis.
1. M. Guiducci, Principi di ecofisiologia della Produzione vegetale (dispense),
2. F. Bonciarelli e U. Bonciarelli, agronomia, Edagricole scolastico, Bologna. 2003.
3. R. Landi. Agronomia e ambiente. Edagricole, Bologna, 1999.
4. L. Cavazza e A. Patruno. Terreno agrario: il comportamento fisico. Reda. Torino. 2005.
5. Loomis and Connor (1992), Crop Ecology. Cambridge Uni Press (UK).
6. Hall et al (ed) (1993) Photosynthesis and production in a changing environment. A field and laboratory manual.. Chapman & Hall (London).
The student will have to prove he has acquired the basic knowledge about
production ecology, ecophysiology and agronomy. In particular, the final
exam will verify the level of knowledge about:
A) fundamental components of the agro-ecosystem and their interactions;
B) macro and micro-climate factors and their practical implications on
crop productivity (solar radiation, temperature, rainfall,
evapotranspiration and wind). Ecophysiological mechanisms through wich
the crops uses environmental resources.
C) Environmental friendly cropping techniques, aimed at the
rationalisation of cropping systems through a better management of yield
limiting factors (agronomic and technical means and their environmental