## Study-unit PHYSICS

Course name Mechanical engineering GP004941 PERUGIA Comune a tutti i curricula Renzo Campanella Renzo Campanella - Didattica Ufficiale 108 Hours - Didattica Ufficiale - Renzo Campanella 12 Coorte 2017 2017/18 Base Fisica e chimica FIS/01 Obbligatorio (Required) Attività formativa monodisciplinare Italian In the course of General Physics we cover three broad subject areas: MECHANICS (including kinematics, Newton’s laws, energy, momentum, rotational mechanics: kinematics / dynamics / energy / angular momentum), mechanics of the rigid body, statics, gravity, and oscillations); THERMODYNAMICS (including specific heat, latent heat, calorimetry, heat transfer, the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics, entropy, and application to thermodynamic machines) and ELECTROMAGNETISM (including static electric and magnetic fields in vacuum, Gauss’ theorem, electrical conduction and current, time varying electromagnetic field, Maxwell’s equations). Corrado Mencuccini, Vittorio Silvestrini; “Fisica - Meccanica e termodinamica” (2016); “Fisica - Elettromagnetismo e ottica” (2017); Casa Editrice Ambrosiana. Knowledge of the physical laws of mechanics, thermodynamics and of electromagnetism in free space.Capability of solving simple problems concerning mechanics, thermodynamics and of electromagnetism in free space. Algebraic calculus, derivatives and integrals, trigonometry, elements of vectorial algebra Participatory Learning, Brainstorming, Problem-based learning, Collective learning, Problem solving. Website: http://fisi-care.unipg.it Two written test with exercises and one oral examination. The first test concerns mechanics; the second one thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Each test comprises three exercises, and a minimum score of 15/30 is required. The oral examination is based on 5/6 questions; its duration is generally 40/60 min. 1. INTRODUCTIONIntroduction - Physical quantities - Dimensional equations - System of measurement - Scalar and vector quantities - Vectors - Vector components – Vector sum and difference - Scalar multiplication - Dots and cross products - Scalar triple product - Applied vectors - Polar and axial moment - Vector operators (Gradient, Divergence, Curl) - Flux – Line integral - Contour integral - Divergence theorem - Kelvin–Stokes theorem.2 – MECHANICS OF POINT PARTICLEKinematics of point particle - Reference systems - Examples of motion - Circular motion - Uniform circular motion - Harmonic motion – Velocity and Acceleration - Relative motion - Coriolis Theorem - Dynamics of point particle - Newton's Laws - Fundamental Forces and Interaction - Impulse - Real and Apparent Forces: Centrifugal Force and Coriolis Force - Work and energy - Power - Kinetic energy - Theorem of work and kinetic Energy - Conservative forces - Potential energy – Conservation of Mechanical energy3 - MECHANICS OF SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND OF THE RIGID BODYCenter of mass - 1st and 2nd cardinal equations – Conservation of momentum - Total angular momentum - Conservation of angular momentum – Impacts - Mechanics of rigid bodies – Rotation around a fixed axis - Moment of inertia - Axial moment of inertia - Statics of rigid bodies - Gravitation - Newton's law of universal gravitation - Determination of universal gravitation constant - Inertial mass and gravitational mass - Acceleration of gravity - Weight - Planets and satellites motion - Kepler's laws - Gravitational field - Gauss's theorem for the gravitational field - Mechanical energy in the solar system.4 - FLUID MECHANICSPressure - Basic Equation of Fluid Statics – Pascal’s Principle - Pressure Measurement – Archimede’s Principle - Fluid Dynamics – Streamlines and Pathlines - Theorem of work and of Kinetic Energy for ideal fluids - Equation of Bernoulli - Equation of continuity5 - OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES Harmonic oscillator - Dumped oscillator - Forced oscillator: resonance- Superposition principle - Fourier Theorem – Sinusoidal waves - Propagation of an elastic perturbation - D'Alambert equation- Interference6 - PRIMO PRINCIPIO DELLA TERMODINAMICA Sistemi e stati termodinamici - Equilibrio termodinamico - Principio dell'equilibrio termico - Definizione di temperatura - Termometri - Sistemi adiabatici. Esperimenti di Joule, Calore - Primo principio della termodinamica. Energia interna - Trasformazioni termodinamiche. Lavoro e calore Calorimetria - Processi isotermi. Cambiamenti di fase - Trasmissione del calore: Conduzione, convezione, irraggiamento - Dilatazione termica di solidi e liquidi 7 - GAS IDEALI E REALI Leggi dei gas. Equazione di stato dei gas ideali - Termometro a gas ideale a volume costante - Trasformazioni di un gas. Lavoro - Calore. Calori specifici - Energia interna del gas ideale - Studio di alcune trasformazioni - Trasformazioni cicliche - Gas reali. Equazione di stato. Energia interna - Equazione di Van der Waals - Diagrammi pV. Diagrammi pT. Formula di Clapeyron 8 - SECONDO PRINCIPIO DELLA TERMODINAMICA Enunciati del secondo principio della termodinamica - Reversibilità e irreversibilità - Teorema di Carnot - Temperatura termodinamica assoluta - Teorema di Clausius - La funzione di stato entropia Il principio di aumento dell'entropia - Calcolo di variazioni di entropia - Entropia del gas ideale - Energia inutilizzabile 9 - SISTEMI PVT - POTENZIALI TERMODINAMICI Potenziali termodinamici - Proprietà generali dei sistemi pVT - Relazioni di Maxwell ELECTROMAGNETISMCoulomb’s law – Electrostatic field – Work by the electric force – Electric voltage, potential - Electrostatic potential energy - Electric field as gradient of the potential - Equipotential surfaces- Curl of the electrostatic field – Electric dipoleElectric flux – Gauss’ Law - Divergence of the electric field.Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium - Electrostatic screen – Capacity – Capacitor connections – Energy of the electrostatic field.Conductors and insulators - Electric current –-Ohm’s law – Series and parallel resistors connections - Electromotive force - Generalized Ohm’s law Charge and discharge of a condenser through a resistor - Displacement current - Kirchhoff’s lawsMagnetic interaction. Magnetic field - Electricity and magnetism – Lorentz’s force – Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor - Mechanical moments on plane current loops.Magnetic field generated by a current - Biot-Savart’s law, magnetic field of a circular loop, solenoid – Magnetic force between two parallel conductors – Ampère’s law – Gauss’ law for the magnetic field.Faraday-Neumann-Lenz’s law – Self induction – Magnetic energy - Ampère-Maxwell’s law – Maxwell’s equations.Introduction to electromagnetic waves – Plane e.m. waves - Energy of the e.m. wave. Poynting’s vector.