Università degli Studi di Perugia

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Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Morena Nocchetti
  • Morena Nocchetti - Didattica Ufficiale
  • 42 ore - Didattica Ufficiale - Morena Nocchetti
Course Regulation
Coorte 2017
Learning activities
Discipline chimiche
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Thermodynamics. Principia of Analytical Chemistry. Equilibria of precipitation, electron transfer, proton transfer, complexation, in the light of chemical analysis.
Reference texts
M. Schiavello, L. Palmisano, Fondamenti di Chimica, EdiSES.
D.C. Harris, Elementi di Chimica Analitica, Zanichelli, Bologna.

Additional material downloadable from the web site unistudium.unipg.it
Educational objectives
The course aims to introduce students to the understanding of the principles upon which the chemical analysis in solution and its use in the quantitative analysis of volumetric and gravimetric, in order to provide useful tools for the laboratory courses of the following years.
The main knowledge gained will be:
- Mechanisms of formation of precipitates
- Treatment of acid-base equilibria
- Operation of the electrodes for potentiometric measurements
The main skills (ability to apply knowledge acquired):
- Use of precipitation reactions in chemical analysis
- Use of acid-base reactions in chemical analysis
- Use of complexation reactions in chemical analysis
- Use of redox reactions in chemical analysis
In order to understand and achieve the intended learning is important that the student has mastered the topics covered in the teaching of General Chemistry, then has already passed this examination.
In particular the knowledge of the following topics is essential:
- Electronic structure of atoms and chemical bonding
- Polarity of the molecules and intermolecular interactions
- Chemical equilibrium with particular reference to the balance in aqueous solution (solubility equilibria and acid-base equilibria)
Furthermore the knowledge of the following topics is important:
- Basic concepts of chemical kinetics
Teaching methods
The course is organized as follows:
- Lectures on all the topics of the course. The lessons will be conducted with the help of the blackboard and through slide shows.
- Numerical exercises in the classroom for the solution of numerical exercises guided with the aid of the blackboard.
The teaching material (slides, exercises during numerical exercises, texts of previous written tests, other material) are made available to students on the e-studium platform after registration.
Other information
At the exam the students are advised to bring student card and proof of identity.
- Essentials allowed for the written exam: periodic table, traditional calculator (scientific), pen.
- Not Allowed: mini computers or PDAs, cell phones, notebooks, books, notes or other information.
- The test must be written in non-erasable pen.
- The student who had not passed a test, can access any of the subsequent tests.
Learning verification modality
The exam consists of a written exam. The duration of the written tests is three hours. They consist of 10 to 15 open-ended questions both theoretical and numerical, in which case it must contain the procedure followed to obtain the result. The theoretical questions require a clear answer concise and comprehensive, according to the knowledge transmitted during lectures.
The exams are designed to ascertain the knowledge, understanding, language acquisition own discipline and the ability to display and summary about the theoretical aspects, and ensure the ability to apply the acquired skills to solve numerical problems related to practical cases.
Extended program
Thermodynamics: Reversible and spontaneous reactions. Entropy. Second principle of thermodynamics. Entropy variation for the system and the environment. Criterion of spontaneity and reversibility based on the variation of entropy. Entropy and order-disorder concept. Microscopic interpretation of entropy. Boltzmann equation. Microstate concept. Qualitative evaluation of entropy variation for some chemical reactions. Third principle of thermodynamics and scale of the absolute entropies of substances. Free energy G. Criterion of spontaneity and reversibility based on the variation of free energy at constant temperature and pressure. Standard Free energy and enthalpies of formation. Thermodynamic tables and their use. Dependence of G on the pressure and concentration of the components of a chemical reaction. Relationship between standard free energy variation and equilibrium constant. Dependence of the equilibrium constant from the temperature. Van t'Hoff equation.
Introduction to analytical chemistry. Classical and instrumental methods. Accuracy, precision, sensitivity, selectivity. Calibration. Primary standards and mother substances.
Ionic solids and precipitation reactions. Gravimetric analysis. Factors that influence the purity of precipitates. Mechanism of formation of precipitates. Degree of saturation and crystal growth. The colloidal state. Properties of colloids. Liophilic and lyophobic colloids. Controlled precipitation and homogeneous precipitation. Precipitation titrations. Overview of some methods for volumetric chloride analysis.
Proton transfer reactions. Acid-base titration curves. Acid base indicators. Titration error.
Galvanic cells. Anodic, cathodic and cell reactions. Electromotive force and electrode potentials. Salt bridge. Electrochemical schemes. Standard electromotive force. Standard reduction potentials. Standard hydrogen electrode and construction of the scale of standard reduction potentials. Oxidizing and reducing species. Reactivity forecast. Effect of concentration on the electrode potential. Nernst's equation. Thermodynamic derivation, relationship between electromotive force and free energy variation. Relationship between the equilibrium constant and f.e.m. standard. Nernst equation applied to the single electrodes. Determination of f.e.m. of a generic pile. Concentration cells. Electrodes of I, II and III species. Indicator electrodes. Reference electrodes: the calomel electrode and silver / silver chloride electrode. Membrane potential and ion-selective electrodes. Glass electrode for pH measurement. Redox titrations. Salient features of the redox titration curves. Redox indicators. The most common redox reagents and their use.
Complexation reactions. Lewis acid-base theory. Coordination compounds. Geometry. Formation constant. Monodentate and polidentate ligands. Chelating effect. The EDTA. Effect of pH on complexation reactions with EDTA. Conditional constant. Complexometric titrations. Metallochromic indicators.
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