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Unit DRUG ANALYSIS III AND DRUG ANALYSIS IV

Course
Pharmacy
Study-unit Code
65113413
Location
PERUGIA
Curriculum
In all curricula
Teacher
Stefano Sabatini
CFU
13
Course Regulation
Coorte 2015
Offered
2018/19
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata

DRUG ANALYSIS III

Code 65113405
Location PERUGIA
CFU 6
Teacher Giuseppe Manfroni
Teachers
  • Giuseppe Manfroni - Didattica Ufficiale
  • Giuseppe Manfroni - Didattica Integrativa
Hours
  • 42 ore - Didattica Ufficiale - Giuseppe Manfroni
  • 6 ore - Didattica Integrativa - Giuseppe Manfroni
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline chimiche, farmaceutiche e tecnologiche
Sector CHIM/08
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Theoretical and practical aspects of the main analytical and spectroscopic techniques used to identify and characterize organic molecules and drugs.
Reference texts V. Cavrini, V. Andrisano. Principi di Analisi Farmaceutica III Edizione. Esculapio.
Additional book:
Holler, Skoog, Crouch. Chimica Analitica Strumentale II ed. EDISES
K.A. Rubinson, J.F. Rubinson. Chimica Analitica Strumentale. Zanichelli.
Educational objectives In the course of Drug Analysis III, the student acquires the fundamental concepts of the instrumental analysis applied to the assay and dosage of drugs.
Knowledge: light matter interaction and origin of UV, IR, NMR spectra; Solvent effect in instrumental techniques; Knowledge of basic instrumentation, general principles based on chromatographic separations with particular regard to HPLC and molecular exclusion chromatography.
Ability: to be able to interpret simple spectra of organic molecules, to be able to choose appropriate instrumental method for the structure confirmation, for the dosage and the purity evaluation of a given drug.
Prerequisites Before attending to both the teaching modules of the course of Drug Analysis III and Drug Analysis IV the students must meet the following prerequisites:
it is essential that the student knows the concepts of the topics covered in the course of general and analytical chemistry; the student is expected to know the fundamental concepts of physic such as electromagnetism and optic, corpuscular and wave theory of light, moments of force, classical mechanics. Other prerequisites required for successful attendance of the courses are related to the organic chemistry: nomenclature, knowledge of functional groups and their reactivity, reaction mechanisms.
Teaching methods Frontal lessons with slides projection. Questions from students are very welcome.
Learning verification modality The oral exam will be essentially focused on three open questions and will be aimed at verifying that the student is capable of arguing the answer to a particular question in a competent, punctual, clear but synthetic way. The student must demonstrate that it has acquired the skills and abilities required by the course. For the course of Analysis of Medicines III, the oral examination provides that the student is capable of interpreting NMR and IR spectrum of simple organic molecules or drugs.
Extended program Introduction to the course: teaching method, role and importance of instrumental techniques for the Pharmaceutical Analysis, the European and Italian Pharmacopoeias, monographs of drugs and instrumental analysis herein reported.
Light-matter interaction: corpuscolar-ondulatory theory of light, wavelength, frequency and energy, light speed on to materials with different density, absorption, emission, photoluminescence, electromagnetic spectrum and associated instrumental analyses.
Refractometry: light speed on to materials with different density; definition and meaning of the refractive index; geometric definition, absolute and relative indices of refraction, determination of the limit angle, parameters that affect the refractive index, Abbe refractometer.
Polarimetry: concept of chirality and asymmetry of molecules, symmetry operations in molecules that do not possess chiral centers, polarized light and Nicols' prism, light-matter interaction (circular polarized light components on the floor), Fresnels' law, optical specific rotation angle in the Pharmacopoeia, parameters affecting the deflection angle of polarized light, polarimeter.
UV spectroscopy: the Beer-Lamberts' law and deviations from linearity; the concepts of absorbance and transmittance; molar absorptivity coefficient; electronic transitions; their significance and energies involved (HOMO-LUMO transitions), concepts of the chromophore and auxochrome; conjugation effect; effect of the solvent, the statistical probability of transition and extension of the chromophore as factors which influence the molar absorptivity coefficient, influence of pH on auxochromes, sample preparation, instrumentation.
IR spectroscopy: harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, Hooke's law; the vibrational quantum number; electric dipole moment; general conditions for the absorption of IR radiation; degrees of vibrational modes for linear and no-linear molecules; frequency of stretching and bending of the main bonds; overtones and combination bands; inactive IR absorption; sample preparation and use of solvents; instrumentation and analysis of spectra of simple organic molecules and drugs.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry: historical milestones of the NMR; properties of nuclei with magnetic spin, the concept of magnetic resonance (Larmor frequency and radiation incident on a core precession); magnetic field effect on the spin populations; concept of chemical shift and use of TMS as the reference molecule; spin-spin coupling and coupling constants; magnetic spin multiplicity; first and second order spectra; AM, AX, A2X3, AA'XX ', AA'BB' systems; use of deuterated water; H-H and H-F coupling constants; diagnostic significance of coupling constants for the determination of the molecular structure; magnets employed in NMR, Fourier spectrum acquisition (pulse NMR), instrumentation; spectra of simple organic molecules and drugs.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry of carbon 13: general aspects and conditions of 13C resonance; H-C totally coupled spectra and decoupling; expedients for recording of a 13C spectrum; JMOD spectrum, chemical shifts of the carbons in the main functional groups and molecular portions; C-F coupling and coupling constants; spectra of simple organic molecules and drugs.
Chromatography: general aspects and principles of chromatographic separations of complex mixtures, chromatographic parameters, stationary and mobile phases, types of chromatography, diffusion parameters and Van Deemter's law; resolution in chromatography; elution modes.
HPLC: the stationary phases and their size and packing, apparatus needed (pumps, injectors, column and detectors), normal and reverse phases, eluting methods, UV, fluorescence and refractive index detectors.
-Size-exclusion chromatography: general; molecules excluded, fractionated and permeated; chemical nature of the stationary phases (Sephadex, Biogel, Sepharose); chemical nature of the mobile phase; elution volumes (Vi, Vt, Vg, V0); exclusion limit and the limit of permeation, the construction of the calibration curve of a column; main applications and limitations; separation of proteins and biopharmaceuticals.

DRUG ANALYSIS IV

Code 65113408
Location PERUGIA
CFU 7
Teacher Stefano Sabatini
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline chimiche, farmaceutiche e tecnologiche
Sector CHIM/08
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)

Cognomi A-L

CFU
7
Teacher
Stefano Sabatini
Teachers
  • Stefano Sabatini - Didattica Ufficiale
  • Stefano Sabatini - Didattica Integrativa
Hours
  • 141 ore - Didattica Ufficiale - Stefano Sabatini
  • 6 ore - Didattica Integrativa - Stefano Sabatini
Language of instruction
Italian
Contents
Calcination of organic, organometallic and inorganic drugs. Qualitative research of the following elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens. Solubility. Characterization of the following functional groups: carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, amines, amides, nitro group, amino acids. Search of the double bond and aromatic structure. Assays specific for recognition: acetates, citrates, tartrates, lactates, benzoates, salicylates, xanthine derivatives, aminobenzensolfonamides and sugars. Practical exercises on the recognition of inorganic, organometallic and organic drugs enrolled in FU XII and EP 9.
Reference texts
References: 
- Handouts given by the teacher; 
- A. Carta, M. G. Mamolo , F. Novelli, S. Piras - Analisi Farmaceutica Qualitativa - Editrice EDISES 

Reference texts: 
- F. Savelli, O. Bruno, Analisi Chimico Farmaceutica, Ed. Piccin - Padova 
- F. CHIMENTI, Identificazione sistematica di composti organici, Ed. Grasso. 
- Vogel - Chimica organica pratica - Casa editrice ambrosiana 
- Italian Pharmacopoeia and XII. European Pharmacopoeia 9th Ed.
Educational objectives
Knowledge of basic practical analysis and instrumental techniques to perform a qualitative analysis of a drug. Ability to recognize and to apply techniques and methodologies necessary for the development of a rational path that identifies a substance of pharmaceutical interest. Ability, based on experimental results, to interpret the information obtained and evaluate the results. Ability to use the specific language of this discipline and to present the results obtained and the methodologies used in a report clear, comprehensive and meaningful to describe the problem completely. The student will be guided through a logical pathway that will enable him to identify virtually all compounds of pharmaceutical interest enrolled in F.U. XII and EP 9.
Prerequisites
In order to gain access to the course, the student will have to comply with the pre-requisites both general and the frequency and between examinations provided by the current Regolamento Didattico del Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Farmacia (http://www.dsf.unipg.it/files/clmfarm/2018/clm_fa_reg._did.a.a.17-18__d.d.20.6.17_.pdf)
Teaching methods
The course is organized as follows:- Lectures on all the subjects of the course.- laboratory exercise, chronologically related to lectures, devoted to the learning of the basic analytical  practical and instrumental techniques aimed to the execution of the qualitative analysis of compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Students will be divided, according to their number, in groups of about 25. Each of the 12 practical lessons will have a duration of 5 hours for an amount of 60 hours/student.
Other information
Mandatory attendance at at least 80% of both practical and theoretical lectures.
Learning verification modality
- Final Practice Test in which to the student will be asked to identify three drugs registered in the existing Official Pharmacopoeia (1 inorganic substance, 1 organometallic and 1 organic);- Oral examination in which the teacher verifies the student's mastery in resolving issues related to the qualitative analysis of drugs.
Extended program
Course overview and outlines about the systematic analysis of pharmaceutical inorganic substances reported in the F.U. XII e EP 9.Characters: physical state, color and smell.Calcination of inorganic, metal-organic and, organic substances with examples of substances that show particular properties (e.g. sublimation). Solubility: definition, expression, factors that influence the solubility: temperature, purity, chemical nature and structure such as: polarity, hydrogen bond formation, molecular weight variation in a homologous series, melting point, structural isomerism, degree of ionization.Elemental analysis: detection of carbon and hydrogen atoms; Lassaigne test: detection of sulfur, nitrogen, halogens, and phosphorus; Beilstein test.Functional groups analysis: determination of unsaturated C-C bonds and aromatic system, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives, amines, amino acids and, nitro derivatives.Systematic analysis of pharmaceutical organo-metallic substances inserted in F.U. XII e EP 8: general scheme and tables. Recognition of organo-metallic and organic salts: acetates, benzoates, salicylates, lactates, gluconates, citrates and tartrates.Systematic analysis of pharmaceutical organic substances reported in F.U. XII and EP 8: solubility in water, ethyl ether, acids and bases; solubility classification; neutral, acid or basic drug properties (general scheme and tables)Analytical profile, recognition reactions and sorting of several classes of pharmaceutical compounds reported in F.U. XII and EP 9:Specific tests for carbohydrates, polyalcohols, sulfonamides, xanthines, amino acids, parabens, saccharin and others. Determination of physico-chemical constants: melting point, specific rotation and absorbance (1%/1cm).

Cognomi M-Z

CFU
7
Teacher
Ornelio Rosati
Teachers
  • Ornelio Rosati - Didattica Ufficiale
  • Ornelio Rosati - Didattica Integrativa
Hours
  • 81 ore - Didattica Ufficiale - Ornelio Rosati
  • 6 ore - Didattica Integrativa - Ornelio Rosati
Language of instruction
Italian
Contents
Calcination of organic, organometallic and inorganic drugs. Qualitative research of the following elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens. Solubility. Characterization of the following functional groups: carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, amines, amides, nitro group, amino acids. Search of the double bond and aromatic structure. Assays specific for recognition: acetates, citrates, tartrates, lactates, benzoates, salicylates, xanthine derivatives, aminobenzensolfonamides and sugars. Practical exercises on the recognition of inorganic, organometallic and organic drugs enrolled in FU XII and EP 8.
Reference texts
References: 
- Handouts given by the teacher; 
- A. Carta, M. G. Mamolo , F. Novelli, S. Piras - Analisi Farmaceutica Qualitativa - Editrice EDISES 

Reference texts: 
- F. Savelli, O. Bruno, Analisi Chimico Farmaceutica, Ed. Piccin - Padova 
- F. CHIMENTI, Identificazione sistematica di composti organici, Ed. Grasso. 
- Vogel - Chimica organica pratica - Casa editrice ambrosiana 
- Italian Pharmacopoeia and XII. European Pharmacopoeia 8 Ed.
Educational objectives
Knowledge of basic practical analysis and instrumental techniques to perform a qualitative analysis of a drug. Ability to recognize and to apply techniques and methodologies necessary for the development of a rational path that identifies a substance of pharmaceutical interest. Ability, based on experimental results, to interpret the information obtained and evaluate the results. Ability to use the specific language of this discipline and to present the results obtained and the methodologies used in a report clear, comprehensive and meaningful to describe the problem completely. The student will be guided through a logical pathway that will enable him to identify virtually all compounds of pharmaceutical interest enrolled in F.U. XII and EP 8.
Prerequisites
In order to gain access to the course, the student will have to comply with the pre-requisites both general and the frequency and between examinations provided by the current Regolamento Didattico del Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Farmacia (http://www.dsf.unipg.it/files/clmfarm/2018/clm_fa_reg._did.a.a.17-18__d.d.20.6.17_.pdf)
Teaching methods
The course is organized as follows:- Lectures on all the subjects of the course.- laboratory exercise, chronologically related to lectures, devoted to the learning of the basic analytical  practical and instrumental techniques aimed to the execution of the qualitative analysis of compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Students will be divided, according to their number, in groups of about 25. Each of the 12 practical lessons will have a duration of 5 hours for an amount of 60 hours/student.
Other information
Mandatory attendance at at least 80% of both practical and theoretical lectures.
Learning verification modality
- Final Practice Test in which to the student will be asked to identify three drugs registered in the existing Official Pharmacopoeia (1 inorganic substance, 1 organometallic and 1 organic);- Oral examination in which the teacher verifies the student's mastery in resolving issues related to the qualitative analysis of drugs.
Extended program
Course overview and outlines about the systematic analysis of pharmaceutical inorganic substances reported in the F.U. XII e EP 8.Characters: physical state, color and smell.Calcination of inorganic, metal-organic and, organic substances with examples of substances that show particular properties (e.g. sublimation). Solubility: definition, expression, factors that influence the solubility: temperature, purity, chemical nature and structure such as: polarity, hydrogen bond formation, molecular weight variation in a homologous series, melting point, structural isomerism, degree of ionization.Elemental analysis: detection of carbon and hydrogen atoms; Lassaigne test: detection of sulfur, nitrogen, halogens, and phosphorus; Beilstein test.Functional groups analysis: determination of unsaturated C-C bonds and aromatic system, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives, amines, amino acids and, nitro derivatives.Systematic analysis of pharmaceutical organo-metallic substances inserted in F.U. XII e EP 8: general scheme and tables. Recognition of organo-metallic and organic salts: acetates, benzoates, salicylates, lactates, gluconates, citrates and tartrates.Systematic analysis of pharmaceutical organic substances reported in F.U. XII and EP 8: solubility in water, ethyl ether, acids and bases; solubility classification; neutral, acid or basic drug properties (general scheme and tables)Analytical profile, recognition reactions and sorting of several classes of pharmaceutical compounds reported in F.U. XII and EP 8:Specific tests for carbohydrates, polyalcohols, sulfonamides, xanthines, amino acids, parabens, saccharin and others. Determination of physico-chemical constants: melting point, specific rotation and absorbance (1%/1cm).
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