Università degli Studi di Perugia

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Unit HYGIEN

Course
Biological sciences
Study-unit Code
55033008
Curriculum
In all curricula
Teacher
Patrizia Rosignoli
Teachers
  • Patrizia Rosignoli - Didattica Ufficiale
Hours
  • 56 ore - Didattica Ufficiale - Patrizia Rosignoli
CFU
8
Course Regulation
Coorte 2016
Offered
2018/19
Learning activities
Caratterizzante
Area
Discipline fisiologiche e biomediche
Sector
MED/42
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Italian
Contents
Epidemiology and prevention of chronic-degenerative and infectious diseases. Main causative agents of infectious diseases and transmission mode. Prophylaxis and specific examples of infectious diseases. Poisoning and food-borne diseases and the control system (HACCP). Drinking water characteristics and treatments (disinfection). Management of urban solid waste.
Reference texts
- Barbuti S., Bellelli E., Fara G.M. e Giammanco G. , Igiene, Monduzzi
Editore, Bologna -
Ultima Edizione.
- Meloni C. e Pelissero G. – Igiene – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano 2007.
- Normativa ambientale.
Educational objectives
At the end of the course students will have acquired the basic knowledge and methodology in order to assess how the environment and its modifications can affect the human health. Students will also be able to decide which are the best preventive measures to be taken in order to protect human health and to identify health risks for the population as a result of changes induced by natural or human activities on the major environmental matrices.
Prerequisites
cell biology
immunology
general microbiology
organic chemistry
Teaching methods
face to face lesson
Other information
Frequence: Optional but strongly advised.
Propaedeutic teaching :
general microbiology; organic chemistry
Learning verification modality
Oral test
Extended program
Definitions: hygiene, health, epidemiology. Infectious and chronic degenerative diseases. Risk factors and determinants of health. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.

Observational descriptive epidemiology. Sources of data on health statistics: census, mandatory reporting, hospital records, records of the disease.

Measurements of frequency: ratios, proportions, specific crude rates (mortality rates: infant, neonatal, early-neonatal, late-neonatal, post-neonatal, perinatal, stillbirth rates, incidence and case fatality), prevalence, life tables, Lexis’s curve, standardization of rates. Measures of association: relative risk, odds ratio, attributable risk.

Observational analytical epidemiology and experimental epidemiology. Retrospective and prospective studies.

Primary prevention of infectious diseases: the epidemiological chain (reservoirs of infection, source of infection, vehicles and carriers, susceptible host); transmission of infectious disease, elimination of the microorganism, way of penetration of the microorganism; characteristics of pathogenic microorganism (virulence, infectivity, invasiveness). Bacterial toxins: exotoxins and endotoxins. Host defenses against microorganisms: non-specific defense (cutaneous and mucosal barriers, the inflammatory response, phagocytosis), specific defenses (cellular and humoral response).

Epidemiology and prevention of infectious diseases: complaint, isolation, diagnostic assessment, disinfection, sterilization, disinfestation, passive and active immunization, chemoprophylaxis.

Diagnostic assessment: pre-analytical phase (specimen collection, sample transport and storage) and analytical phase (bacteriological examination, bacterial culture, biochemical tests, antibiogram, agglutination reactions and precipitation reactions, immunofluorescence, PCR, multiplex-PCR and PCR-RFLP , Western blotting).

Epidemiology and prevention of airborne diseases (tuberculosis and “streptococcie” scarlet fever) of parenterally transmitted diseases (hepatitis B), of fecal-oral cycle diseases (salmonellosis) of foodborne diseases (botulism) and zoonoses (rabies, brucellosis and malaria).

Food as transmission vehicle of infectious diseases: intoxication and food-borne. Contamination of food. Factors affecting microbial growth in food. Strategies of prevention: the HACCP system.

Water as a human health influencing factor. Drinking water and treatment systems .
The soil and human health.
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