Università degli Studi di Perugia

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Biological sciences
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Ines Di Rosa
  • Ines Di Rosa - Didattica Ufficiale
  • 56 ore - Didattica Ufficiale - Ines Di Rosa
Course Regulation
Coorte 2017
Learning activities
Discipline botaniche, zoologiche, ecologiche
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Embryogenesis, origin, phylogenesis and systematics of vertebrates. The comparative study of vertebrate features respect to 1) the body protection and support: the integumentary and the skeletal systems; 2) the metabolism processes: the digestive system and the feeding, the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, the escretory system; 3) the integration systems: the sensorial system and the nervous system.
Reference texts
Educational objectives
The course is aimed to provides the anatomical, functional and molecular groundings to understand the biology and evolution of vertebrates.

The main knowledge acquired will be:
- main phases of vertebrate embryology and protected environments where they occur;
- overview of vertebrate evolutionary history, describing the main anatomical characteristics of vertebrate taxa;
- similarities and differences in the body structures of different vertebrates.

The main competence will be:
- ability to understand how the embryogenesis lays the foundations of the body structure of adult organisms;
- ability to understand the role of morphofunctional variations in evolution of the vertebrate animals;
- ability to understand the relationship between form and function and between form and evolution of vertebrates
In order to be able to understand the topics of the program, students must have acquired basic knowledge of Cytology, Histology and Zoology.
Teaching methods
The course is organized in lectures on the topics listed in the program.
Learning verification modality
The exam includes an oral test consisting of an interview of about 45 minutes long aiming to ascertain student knowledge level and acquired understanding capability about the topics discussed during the course. The oral exam is also intended to test the student synthesis capability
and propriety of language.

For information on support services for students with disabilities and / or DSA visit the page.
Extended program
Basics of Comparative Anatomy: form, function, evolution.
Characteristics of chordates. Origin, phylogenesis and systematics of vertebrates.

Comparative Embryology of vertebrates.

Integumentary system: general organization, embryological derivation, epidermis-dermis interactions, epidermis and its derivatives, dermis and its derivatives, receptor organs, pigment cells.

Skeletal system: skeletal tissues, direct and indirect ossification.
a) Axial skeleton. Skull ontogenesis and organization. Relationships and evolution of neurocranium, splanchnocranium and dermatocranium. Notochord. Vertebral column ontogenesis and evolution. Vertebral column regionalization of aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates. Sternum and ribs.
b) Appendicular skeleton. Shoulder and pelvic girdles. Fish paired fins. Phylogenesis and structure of the tetrapod limb.

Respiratory system: ontogenesis of the organs and the airways. Structure and functional characteristics of vertebrate gills and lungs.
Phylogenetic relationships between swimming bladder and lungs.

Circulatory system: single and double circulations. Hemopoiesis: blood; structure of vertebrate lymphoid and mieloid organs. Morphogenesis, structure and evolution of heart and aortic arches. Lymphatic system.

Digestive system: ontogenesis. The oral cavity and the mechanisms for feeding. Phylogenesis, microscopic anatomy and function of digestive organs.

Escretory system: phylogenesis and function of the renal corpuscle. Ontogenesis, structure and evolution of pronephros, mesonephros and metanephros. Osmoregulation.

Nervous system: ontogenesis and organization of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Structure, connections and function of vertebrate central nervous system organs. Peripheral nervous system: cranial and spinal nerve. Autonomic nervous system.
Sense organs: olfactory organs, taste buds, acousticolateralis organs, photoreceptor organs.
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