Università degli Studi di Perugia

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Unit BIOMECHANICS

Course
Sciences and tecniques of sports and preventive and adapted physical activity
Study-unit Code
50A00006
Curriculum
In all curricula
Teacher
Andrea Biscarini
Teachers
  • Andrea Biscarini - Didattica Ufficiale
Hours
  • 40 ore - Didattica Ufficiale - Andrea Biscarini
CFU
6
Course Regulation
Coorte 2018
Offered
2018/19
Learning activities
Affine/integrativa
Area
Attività formative affini o integrative
Sector
FIS/07
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Italian.
Contents
Forces acting on the musculo-skeletal system: external forces, muscle forces, joint reaction forces.
Kinesiology of the musculo-skeletal system.
Biomechanical analysis of the different kinds of physical exercise and exercise equipment.
Experimental techniques in biomechanics: elecrtomyography, stabilometry, kinematic analisys of human movement.
Principles and tecniques of functional rehabilitation.
Reference texts
Kisner, Colby. Therapeutic Exercise. F.A. Davis Company. 2013.
Neumann. Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System. Mosby. 2016.
Slides at the website: www.unipg.it/andrea.biscarini
Educational objectives
To understand and use the fundamental theoretical methods and experimental techniques used in musculoskeletal biomechanics.
To learn the methodological tools necessary to carry out an in-depth analysis of the most relevant biomechanical aspects (posture, movement kinematic, muscle activations, joint loads) of a physical exercise, in sports, fitness, and functional reeducation.
To be able to design a physical exercise optimized for specific individual needs.
Prerequisites
Necessary prerequisites: basic knowledge of Physics, Anatomy, and Physiology.
Teaching methods
Face-to-face lectures held in classroom (theoretical bases of biomechanics), in an affiliated external gym (biomechanics of physical exercise), and in the Biomechanical laboratory (experimental techniques in biomechanics).
Other information
None.
Learning verification modality
The exam consists of a written test and a voluntary oral test.

The examination, on the whole, is aimed at assessing: a) the degree of knowledge and understanding; b) the ability to apply the acquired competences to the of fields of sport and adapted kinesiology; c) the quality of presentation (clarity, coherence, scientific accuracy, completeness, ability to synthesize).

The written test has a duration of 2 hours and consist of 3 open-answer questions, one on each of the 3 sections that constitute the course program (see the official program of the course). For each topic, students are asked to discuss the possible applications in sports and adapted kinesiology. A score from 0 to 10 points is assigned to each answer.

After the results of the written test have been published, students may decide to integrate this test with a voluntary oral examination (lasting about 30 minutes) that allows the student demonstrate his/her expertise and capacities (including the dialectical ability and the property of language) even with this mode of examination. In this case, the evaluations of the written and the oral tests equally contribute to the final evaluation.
Extended program
1. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BASES OF BIOMECHANICS

1.1 Mechanics of point mass systems and rigid bodies.
1.2 External force acting on the musculoskeletal system and their use as reistance during physical exercises. Force platforms.
1.3 Muscle force. Application point, direction, magnitude, traction angle, moment arm, axial moment. Force-time, force-velocity, and force-length relationships. Electromyography.
1.4 Compression, traction, shear, and torsion joint forces. Ligament tension forces and bone-to-bone joint contact forces.
1.5 Kinematic analysis of human body movement. Electrogoniometers, accelerometers, optoelectronic motion capture systems.
1.6 Formulation and solution of the direct and inverse dynamic problem in biomechanics. Biomechanical modelling.

2. BIOMECHANICS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE

2.1 Functional anatomy of the musculoskeletal system.
2.2 Biomechanics of equipment for physical exercise.
2.3 Biomechanical analysis of the different kinds of physical exercise: breathing exercises, relaxation exercises, posture awareness exercises, postural control and stabilization exercises, flexibility exercises, muscle performance exercises, aerobic exercises, balance exercises, coordination and agility exercises, functional exercises.

3. BIOMECHANICS APPLIED TO PHYSICAL REHABILITATION AND INJURY PREVENTION

3.1 Therapeutic exercise.
3.2 Exercises for specific functional impairments, poor posture, muscle imbalances, muscle weakness, and muscle tightness.
3.3 Control of joint and muscle forces during physical exercise.
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