Università degli Studi di Perugia

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Sciences and tecniques of sports and preventive and adapted physical activity
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Emira Maria Ayroldi
  • Emira Maria Ayroldi - Didattica Ufficiale
  • 48 ore - Didattica Ufficiale - Emira Maria Ayroldi
Course Regulation
Coorte 2018
Learning activities
Attività formative affini o integrative
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
TOXICOLOGY: Principles of toxicology, drug addiction (caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, alcohol, marijuana, designer drugs, ecstasy, opiates, benzodiazepines, barbiturates). DOPING: Anabolic Androgenic, Growth hormone (GH), ACTH and glucocorticoids, Gonadotrophins, alpha-reductase inhibitors and antiestrogens, Insulin, Beta2-adrenergic agonists, clembuterolo, Beta-adrenergic antagonists, Blood doping, Diuretics, Gene doping
Reference texts
D.R. Mottram: Farmaci e Sport. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Santo Davide Ferrara: Doping Antidoping. Casa editrice Piccin
Educational objectives
After completing the course, students: 1) should know and understand (To know) the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, toxicological aspects, contraindications, drug interactions of the main drugs used to improve physical performance and toxicology of abuse drugs. They must also have a good awareness of the extent of the doping phenomenon, through the knowledge of doping epidemiology; 2) should apply independently and critically acquired knowledge to their work (Know-how), and must have the ability to monitor and to intervene in many sports to prevent risks to health, arising from performance-enhancing drugs (knowing how to be). These capabilities are achieved through a full understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the main performance-enhancing and abuse drugs.
The student should have basic knowledge of biology, physiology and general pathology, namely some of the disciplines already learned in the three-year course of motor sciences. Because many drugs used in doping are hormones, students should also have essential bases of endocrinology, especially sex and pituitary hormones.
Teaching methods
The course is organized in frontal lessons on all topics enclosed in the program. Before addressing toxicological aspects of performance-enhancing and abuse drugs, it will be treated their physiological role (in the case of hormones) or their use in therapy (in the case of drugs used for various diseases).
Each new lesson will be preceded by a summary of the previous lesson, with the help of students, who are often called upon to intervene in the course of the lesson, with the aim to achieve maximum understanding and learning of the subject matter, directly in classroom
Other information
The frequency is mandatory.

The lessons will be held in via Giuseppe Bambagioni, 4, PG.
Learning verification modality
The exam is an oral test consisting of a discussion lasting about 20 minutes, which will be aimed not only to test the knowledge of the program, but also to judge the student's ability to critically associate pharmacological effects with the pathophysiology and side effects. Both, potential to apply the acquired knowledge and ability reasoning in the presentation will compete for the final judgment of the student.
Extended program
- Basic notions of toxicology
- Adverse drug reaction (ADR)
- Tolerance, addiction (substances and situations), abuse, drug-addiction
- Sedative and stimulant drugs, withdrawal syndrome and craving, reward areas
- Pharmacological effects of the main drugs of abuse:
1) Heroin and opiates
2) Ethanol
3) Psychostimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, caffeine)
4) Nicotine and treatment for smoking cessation
5) Cannabinoids
6) Designer drugs
7) Natural and synthetic hallucinogens

- Doping: history, definitions, aspects of the problem; psychological motivations of the phenomenon, the risk, WADA Code, the list of "forbidden" substances, the anti-doping.
- Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) (exogenous, endogenous): physiology of androgen hormones, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, androgen biosynthesis, the pharmacological effects, doping protocols and side effects, addiction.
- Growth hormone (GH): physiological role of GH and IGF-1, GH receptor and pharmacological effects, GH and doping, side effects
- Insulin: physiological role of insulin, insulin receptor and pharmacological effects, insulin and doping, side effects
- Other regulatory hormones: gonadotropins (LH, hCG) prohibited in males
- Beta2-adrenergic agonists: functions of adrenergic receptors, clinical use of beta2-adrenergic agonists and their use in doping, clembuterol and anabolic effects, side effects
- Beta-adrenergic antagonists: use in particular sports.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Glucocorticoid
Blood doping:
1) Erythropoietin: role and physiological control, receptor and effects on erythropoiesis, erythropoietin and doping, side effects
2) Transfusions (homologous and autologous)
3) Other techniques to increase the availability of O2 in the blood, perfluorocarbons (PFCs), the allosteric hemoglobin modifier
4) Blood doping masking agents: amido idrossietil.
- Diuretics: mechanism of action and use in sport.
- Gene doping, general principles, technologies for the transfer of genetic material, muscle physiology with particular attention to muscle growth factors (Insulin-like growth factor, Mechano Growth Factor, Myostatin).
- Dietary supplements adapted to sports
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