Industrial pharmacy
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Morena Nocchetti
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code GP003081
Teacher Morena Nocchetti
  • Morena Nocchetti
  • 48 ore - Morena Nocchetti
Learning activities Base
Area Discipline chimiche
Academic discipline CHIM/03
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Introduction to the general chemistry. Atomic theory and electronic structure of the atoms. Molecular geometries. Ionic and covalent bond theories. Intermolecular forces. Chemical reactions. State of matter: solid, liquid, gas. Equilibrium. Acids, Bases, and Salts-Ionic Equilibria. Electrochemistry. Kinetic elements.
Reference texts M. Schiavello, L. Palmisano, Fondamenti di Chimica, EdiSES, Quinta edizione, Napoli 2017.
lecture notes
Educational objectives This teaching is the first rigorous approach to the general and inorganic chemistry. The main objective of the course is provide to the students the basic concepts of general chemistry as a description of nature, an appropriate scientific language and the ability to study in a critical and reasoned way.
The main knowledge gained will be:
- Atomic theory and electronic structure of atoms.
- Chemical bond and molecular geometries.
- Intermolecular forces.
- Chemical reactions.
- Chemical equilibrium in the gas phase and in aqueous solution.

The main skills (ability to apply the knowledge acquired):
- Identify and be able to write formulas of inorganic compounds;
- Represent inorganic molecules or molecular ions highlighting the orientation of the atoms and the bonds between them;
- Predict the polarity and the physical state of molecules;
- Predict the reactivity of inorganic compounds both in redox and in non-redox reactions;
- Write and describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects (stoichiometric) of a chemical reaction in relation to chemical homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium.
Prerequisites In order to understand and achieve the expected learning targets the student should possess skills of mathematics and physics. In particular, the student should know and be able to use some basic mathematical tools (equivalence, linear and quadratic equations, logarithm, exponential function, inequations, derivatives, integrals) and notions of fundamental physics (unit of measurement, force, energy).
Teaching methods The course is organized as follows:
- Lectures on all the topics of the course. The lessons will be conducted with the help of the blackboard and by the projection of slides.
- Numerical exercitations in classroom for the guided solution of numerical exercises with the aid of the blackboard.
The teaching material (slides, exercises proposed during numerical exercitations, texts of previous written exams) are made available to students on the platform unistudium after registration.
Learning verification modality The evaluation of the actual acquisition by students of the learning outcomes will be done through a written exam and an oral exam.
The written exam will be administered at the end of the lessons of the second semester and will be aimed at ascertaining the student's ability to use the acquired skills to solve numerical problems related to practical cases. The exam lasts three hours and will consist of 13 open answer numeric problems, the process followed to obtain the result must be indicated in the answer. The final oral exam will take if the mark of the written exam is greater than or equal to 18/30.
The oral exam lasts about 45 minutes and consists of questions on theoretical aspects related to the issues addressed in teaching and reported in the detailed program of the course. The purpose of the oral exam is to assess the knowledge, the understanding and the discipline language acquisition. Moreover, the ability of the student to explain the theoretical aspects and to apply the skills acquired in more complex systems, correlated to the program of teaching, is verified.
The exam final judgment will take account of the marks obtained in the written and the oral exam.
In order to facilitate the overcoming of the written exam three written progress assessments will be performed during the semesters. The achievement of a mark greater than or equal to 18/30 for each test will exempt the student from the general written exam.
Extended program Generalities and elements of stoichiometry
Intensive and extensive properties of matter. S.I measurement system, unit conversions. Forms of energy. Classification of matter: pure substances, elements, compounds, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. Constitution of the atom, atomic number, mass number, nuclides, isotopes, elements. Mass defect. Atomic masses: absolute, relative and molar mass of atomic masses. Avogadro's constant and mole concept. Chemical formula (minimum and molecular), molecular weight (formula). Stoichiometry of mixtures. Chemical reactions, chemical equation, balancing of a chemical reaction, limiting reagent. Numerical exercises.
Fundamentals of atomic theory
Electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic spectrum.
Electron Discovery: Thomson Experiment, Millikan Experiment. Discovery of the proton, Rutherford atomic model.
Plank's quantum theory. Photoelectric effect and its interpretation according to A. Einstein. The hydrogen atom according to N. Bohr: postulated, introduction of the main quantum number, electronic transitions, interpretation of the hydrogen spectra. Eisenberg's Indefinite Principle. Dual-wave particle and De Broglie's relationship. Davisson and Germer's experiment.
Quantum mechanics: Shrödinger equation, polar coordinates, wave functions, and quantum numbers. Physical meaning of wave function, radial nodes and angular nodes of wave function, radial probability density curves, atomic orbitals, spin.
Multi-electron atoms: approximate resolution of the Shrödinger equation by using Zeff, Zeff calculation using the Slater rules. Electronic configurations, Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle. Periodic table. Periodic properties of elements. Ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic rays and ionic rays, Ion radius calculation by the Pauling method. Periodicity in the chemical properties of hydrides and oxides. Numerical exercises.
Chemical bonds and molecular structure
Bonding energy, bond length, bonding angles.
Ionic bond. Information on ionic lattices, ionic model and lattice energy, and calculation of lattice energy using thermodynamic cycles (Born-Haber).
Covalent bond: electron pair theory, octet rule, homo and hetero nuclear bonds. Dative covalent bond. Exceptions to the octet rule. Valence bond theory. Sigma and pi greek bonds. Polyatomic Molecules: Method V.S.E.P.R. and molecular geometry. Hybridization. Formal charge.
Electronegativity, electronegativity scales according to Mulliken and Pauling. Polarity of the bonds, percentage of ionic character of a polar covalent bond, polarity of the molecules. Formulas of the structure of the most common molecules and of the most common molecular ions.
Resonance. Delocalized molecular orbits. Isomers.
Chemical nomenclature
Oxidation number. Nomenclature of the most common compounds. Basic Oxides, Hydroxides, Acid Oxides, Acids, Salts. Classification of chemical reactions. Redox reactions: balance of the chemical reactions with the ionic-electronic method. Disproportionation reactions.
Intermolecular bonds
Ion-dipole interaction, dipole-dipole. Dipole-induced dipole, induced dipole-induced dipole, hydrogen bond and its consequences.
The gaseous state
Ideal model of perfect gas, perfect gas laws (ideal), Avogadro's law, perfect gas state equation (ideal).
Gaseous mixtures: partial pressures and volumes. Dalton's Law. % By mass, by volume, the average molecular weight of a gaseous mixture. Kinetic gas theory (results only). Diffusion and effusion. Distribution of molecular velocities (energies) according to Maxwell and Boltzmann. Numerical exercises.
Solid state and liquid state
Classification of solids: ionic solids, covalent solids, molecular solids, metallic solids. Properties of liquids. Viscosity and surface tension.
The vapor pressure. The equilibrium and its characteristics. Liquid-liquid equilibrium, solid-liquid, solid-steam. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Normal boiling and melting temperature. State diagrams (H2O, CO2). Concept of variance. Relative humidity.
Definitions, solubility and temperature effect on solubility.
Concentration (% in mass, molarity, molar fraction, molarity, normality). Convertion of the units. The equivalence principle.
Classification of solutes, electrolytes and electrolytic dissociation.
Colligative properties of solutions: lowering the vapor pressure. Raoult law. Cryoscopy, ebullioscopy, osmotic pressure.
Numerical exercises.
Chemical equilibrium
Equilibrium characteristics, homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Kp and Kc. Use of the equilibrium constant, Le Châtelier's principle. Effects of temperature, pressure and concentration on chemical equilibria. Gaseous dissociation: degree of dissociation and binomial of Van't Hoff.
Ionic equilibria in aqueous solution: factors that influence salt solubility, insoluble salts, solubility product. Selective Precipitation.
Numerical exercises.


Code GP003082
Teacher Monica Pica
  • Monica Pica
  • Monica Pica
  • 48 ore - Monica Pica
  • 10 ore - Monica Pica
Learning activities Base
Area Discipline chimiche
Academic discipline CHIM/03
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Reactivity and strength of acids and bases. Electrochemistry. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical bond described by MO-LCAO method. Fundamentals of solid state and crystallography. The chemistry of coordination compounds.
Reference texts M. Schiavello, L. Palmisano, Fondamenti di Chimica, EdiSES, Terza edizione, Napoli 2010.
Educational objectives The main objective of the course is to provide some basic concepts of inorganic chemistry, preparatory to different disciplines, to develop an appropriate scientific language and the ability to study in a critical and reasoned manner.
The main gained knowledge will deal with:
- reactivity of acid-base and electrochemical systems;
- thermodynamics and kinetics;
- description of chemical bond with the MO LCAO method;
- principles of solid state chemistry;
- coordination compounds;
The main skills (ability to apply an acquired knowledge) will be:
- the prediction of the reactivity of inorganic compounds in acid-base and electrochemical systems;
- the prediction of the spontaneity of chemical and physical processes;
- the explanation of kinetic data;
- the prediction of the optical and magnetic properties of diatomic molecules by the MO-LCAO method and of metal complexes by the crystal field theory.
Prerequisites - basic knowledge of general chemistry (stoichiometry, atomic theory, chemcal bond, chemical equilibrium);
- basic knowledge of mathematics (exponential and logarithm integral and derivative functions);
- basic knowledge of classical physics (work, energy, force)
Teaching methods The course is organized as follows:
- Lectures on the topics of the course, using both blackboard and slide projection.
- Numerical exercitations on the blackboard for the guided solution of numerical exercises.
The teaching material (slides, exercises proposed during numerical exercitations, texts of previous written exams) are made available to students on the unistudium platform .

On the basis of the measures taken for the sanitary emergency, online lessons could be also carried out.
Other information - Frequency strongly recommended.
- Integrative educational activity: numerical exercitations on the blackboard for the guided solution of numerical exercises (2 hours a week).
Learning verification modality Written examination (3 hours) including numerical exercises and theoretical concepts.
Extended program Equilibria in aqueous solution: acids and bases. Bronsted and Lowry theory. Classification of solvents. Water autoprotolysis, Kw. pH concept. The strength of acids and bases. Solvent Leveling effect, Ka, Kb and pH of simple systems (solutions of strong acids and bases, weak acids and bases, salt hydrolysis, buffer solutions, polyprotic acids). pH indicators. Lewis theory: acid-base adducts of Lewis, nucleophilic and electrophilic species. Exercises.

Electrochemistry. Galvanic and electrolytic cells. Anode, cathode and cell reactions. Electrode potential and electromotive force (emf) at open circuit. Scale of standard reduction potentials of couples ox / red and their use. Nernst equation. Chemical concentration cells. Chemical applications of galvanic cells. Relationship between emf and equilibrium constant of a redox reaction. Principles of electrolysis. Exercises.

Concepts of Thermodynamics. The state functions. First law. Internal energy. Enthalpy. Standard enthalpy of formation and Hess's law. Thermochemistry. Enthalpy and temperature. Cv and Cp. Reversible and irreversible process. Entropy. The second law, Entropy and temperature. The third law. Standard entropies. Free energy. Criteria of spontaneity. Partial molar free energy. Chemical potential. Derivation of the thermodynamic equilibrium constant, the dependence of equilibrium constant to temperature, the Nernst equation, Numerical exercises.

Concepts of chemical kinetics. Reaction rate and it affecting factors. Concentration and reaction rate. Forward and reverse reaction rate. Kinetic laws. Reaction order. Specific rate constant. Integration of kinetic laws. First and second order reactions. Half-life. The temperature dependence of reaction rate. Arrhenius equation. Measure the activation energy. Reaction mechanisms. Molecularity and elementary reactions. Collision and activated complex theory. The reaction coordinate, the Hammond postulate. Fundamentals of photochemistry. Fundamentals on homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.

The chemical bond and the molecular orbitals theory. Covalent bond theory with the MO-LCAO method. Bonding, antibonding and nonbonding molecular orbitals. s and p symmetry of molecular orbitals. Molecular electronic configurations. Bond order. Magnetic properties. Examples of some homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Concept of HOMO and LUMO. Huckel Theory.

Solid state. Fundamentals of crystallography. Types of three-dimensional lattices. The seven classes of symmetry and the 14 Bravais lattices. X-Ray diffraction and Bragg Law.
The coordination compounds. Nomenclature. Central atom and mono and polydentate ligands. Description of the metal-ligand bond by VB model. Crystal field theory for octahedral, square-planar and tetrahedral complexes. The spectrochemical series. Fundamentals of ligand field theory. Optical and magnetic properties.
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