Unit PHYSICS
 Course
 Mechanical engineering
 Studyunit Code
 GP004941
 Curriculum
 In all curricula
 Teacher
 Renzo Campanella
 Teachers

 Renzo Campanella
 Hours
 108 ore  Renzo Campanella
 CFU
 12
 Course Regulation
 Coorte 2021
 Offered
 2021/22
 Learning activities
 Base
 Area
 Fisica e chimica
 Academic discipline
 FIS/01
 Type of studyunit
 Obbligatorio (Required)
 Type of learning activities
 Attività formativa monodisciplinare
 Language of instruction
 Italian
 Contents
 Mechanics of point particle; energy and work; mechanics of sistems and of the rigid body. Free harmonic oscillator, dumped oscillator, forced oscillator. Mechanics of fluids. Thermology and thermodynamics. Ideal and real gases. Elettrico and magnetic fields in the void. Maxwell Equations, Lorentz force.
 Reference texts
 Mechanics of point particle; energy and work; mechanics of sistems and of the rigid body. Free harmonic oscillator, dumped oscillator, forced oscillator. Waves. Mechanics of fluids. Thermology and thermodynamics. Ideal and real gases. Elettrico and magnetic fields in the void. Maxwell Equations, Lorentz force.
 Educational objectives
 Knowledge of the physical laws of mechanics, thermodynamics and of electromagnetism in free space.
Capability of solving simple problems concerning mechanics, thermodynamics and of electromagnetism in free space.  Prerequisites
 Algebraic calculus, derivatives and integrals, trigonometry, elements of vectorial algebra
 Teaching methods
 The course is organized in facetoface lectures on all subjects
 Other information
 The teacher can be reached at the university email address.
Students with disabilities are welcome to contact privately the teacher with regards to any specific aid during the course or for the examination.  Learning verification modality
 Two written test with exercises and one oral examination. The first test concerns mechanics; the second one thermodinamics and electromagnetism. Each test comprises three exercises, and a minimum score of 15/30 is required. The oral examination is based on 5/6 question; its lenghth is generally 40/60 min.
 Extended program
 1  INTRODUZIONE
Introduction  Physical quantities  Dimensional equations  Units of measurement systems  Scalar and vector quantities  Free vectors  Components of a vector  Sum of vectors  Product of a vector by a scalar  Scalar and vector products  Mixed product  Applied vectors  Polar and axial moments  Vector operators – Flow  Line integrals  Circulation  Divergence theorem – Stokes’ theorem
2  MECHANICS OF A POINT PARTICLE
Kinematics of a point particle  Reference systems  Geometric and temporal aspects of motion: trajectory and hourly equation  Displacements  Degrees of freedom  Examples of motion  Circular motion  Uniform circular motion  Harmonic motion  Average scalar speed and instantaneous scalar velocity – Vectorial velocity  Average and instantaneous scalar acceleration, vectorial acceleration  Plane motions  Central motions  Relative motion theorem – Coriolis’ theorem  Dynamics of the material point  Forces  Newton's laws  Inertial terns  Inertial mass  Fundamental forces and interactions  Quantity of motion  Impulse of a force  Weight  Elastic forces  Support reactions  Friction  Passive resistances  Real and apparent forces: force centrifuge and Coriolis force  Simple pendulum
Work and energy for the material point  Definition of work  Power  Kinetic energy  Theorem of living forces  Conservative force fields  Potential energy  Conservation of mechanical energy  Energy in the harmonic oscillator  Variation of energy in presence of nonconservative forces
3  MECHANICS OF RIGID SYSTEMS AND BODIES
Mechanics of systems of material points  Center of mass and motion of the center of mass  Amount of motion of a system? 1st cardinal equation  Third principle of dynamics  Total momentum  Internal and external forces  Momentum conservation principle  Variable mass systems motion  Moment of total momentum  Momentum momentum theorem for a point system  Principle of conservation of momentum momentum  2nd cardinal equation  Work theorem and kinetic energy for a point system  Total kinetic energy  Motion of center of mass and motion around the center of mass  Energy potential in systems  Conservation of mechanical energy  Impact processes  Central normal impact  Impact in space
Rigidbody mechanics  Rigidbody kinematics  Rigid motions, translational motion, rotary motion  Distribution of velocities and accelerations in a rigid motion  Dynamics of rigid bodies  Equivalent systems of forces  Rotatable body around a fixed axis  Moment d ? inertia  moment of axial inertia  examples of rotational motion around a fixed axis  statics of rigid bodies  cardinal equations of statics
Gravitation  Law of universal gravitation  Determination of the universal gravitation constant  Inertial mass and gravitational mass  Acceleration of gravity  Weight  Motion of planets and satellites  Kepler's laws  Gravitational field  Gauss theorem  Energy potential of gravitation  Energy mechanics in the solar system
3  MECHANICS OF RIGID SYSTEMS AND BODIES
Mechanics of systems of material points  Center of mass and motion of the center of mass  Amount of motion of a system? 1st cardinal equation  Third principle of dynamics  Total momentum  Internal and external forces  Momentum conservation principle  Variable mass systems motion  Moment of total momentum  Momentum momentum theorem for a point system  Principle of conservation of momentum: Momentum  2nd cardinal equation  Work theorem and kinetic energy for a point system  Total kinetic energy  Motion of center of mass and motion around the center of mass  Energy potential in systems  Conservation of mechanical energy  Impact processes  Central normal impact  Impact in space
Rigidbody mechanics  Rigidbody kinematics  Rigid motions, translational motion, rotary motion  Distribution of velocities and accelerations in a rigid motion  Dynamics of rigid bodies  Equivalent systems of forces  Rotatable body around a fixed axis  Moment of inertia  examples of rotational motion around a fixed axis  statics of rigid bodies  cardinal equations of statics
Gravitation  Law of universal gravitation  Determination of the universal gravitation constant  Inertial mass and gravitational mass  Acceleration of gravity  Weight  Motion of planets and satellites  Kepler's laws  Gravitational field  Gauss theorem  Energy potential of gravitation  Mechanical energy in the solar system
4  MECHANICS OF FLUIDS
Fluid mechanics  Pressure at a point of a fluid  Equations of fluid statics  Statics of heavy fluids  Pascal's principle  Measurement of pressures  Archimedes' principle  Fluid dynamics  Flow and current lines  Work theorem and kinetic energy for ideal fluids  Bernouilli equation  Continuity equation
5  OSCILLATIONS
Harmonic oscillator  O.A. smorzato  O.A. forced: resonance 
6  FIRST PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamic systems and states  Thermodynamic equilibrium  Principle of thermal equilibrium  Definition of temperature  Thermometers  Adiabatic systems. Joule experiments, Heat  First law of thermodynamics. Internal energy  Thermodynamic transformations. Work and heat
Calorimetry  Isothermal processes. Phase changes  Heat transfer: Conduction, convection, radiation  Thermal expansion of solids and liquids
7  IDEAL AND REAL GASES
Gas laws. Equation of state of ideal gases  Ideal gas thermometer with constant volume  Transformations of a gas. Work  Heat. Specific heats  Internal energy of the ideal gas  Study of some transformations  Cyclical transformations  Real gases. Equation of state. Internal energy  Van der Waals equation  pV diagrams. PT diagrams Clapeyron formula
8  SECOND PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS
Statements of the second law of thermodynamics  Reversibility and irreversibility  Carnot's theorem  Absolute thermodynamic temperature  Clausius theorem  The entropy state function
The principle of increase in entropy  Calculation of entropy variations  Ideal gas entropy  Unusable energy
9  PVT SYSTEMS  THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS
Thermodynamic potentials  General properties of pVT systems  Maxwell relations
10 ELECTROSTATIC FORCE. ELECTROSTATIC FIELD
Electric charges. Insulators and conductors  Electrical structure of the matter  Coulomb's law  Electrostatic field  Electrostatic field produced by a continuous distribution of charges  Electrostatic field strength lines  Motion of a charge in an electrostatic field.
11 ELECTRIC WORK. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL
Work of the electric force  Voltage, potential  Calculation of the electrostatic potential  Electrostatic potential energy  The field as a potential gradient  Equipotential surfaces  The electrostatic field rotor  The electric dipole  The force on an electric dipole.
12 THE LAW OF GAUSS
Flow of the electrostatic field  Gauss's law  Demonstration of the Gauss's law  Some applications and consequences of the Gauss's law  The divergence of the electrostatic field.
13 CONDUCTORS. DIELECTRIC. ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY
Conductors in equilibrium  Hollow conductor  Electrostatic screen  Capacitors  Connection of capacitors  Energy of the electrostatic field
14 ELECTRIC CURRENT
Electrical conduction  Electric current  Stationary electric current  Electric conduction Ohm's law  Series and parallel resistors  Electromotive force  Generalized Ohm's law  Charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor  Displacement current  Kirchhoff's laws for electricity networks
15 MAGNETIC FIELD. MAGNETIC FORCE
Magnetic interaction. Magnetic field  Electricity and magnetism  Magnetic force on a moving charge (Lorentz force)  Magnetic force on a currentcarrying conductor  Mechanical moments on plane circuits.
16 SOURCES OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD. LAW OF AMPERE
Magnetic field produced by a current  Calculations of magnetic fields produced by particular circuits: rectilinear wire (BiotSavart's law), circular loop, solenoid of infinite length  Electrodynamic actions between wires covered by current  Ampère's law  Gauss 'law  Gauss' law for the magnetic field.
17 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS VARIABLE IN TIME
Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction  Origin of the induced f.e.m.  Applications of Faraday's law  Self induction  Magnetic energy  Ampère's law  Maxwell's equations in intergal and differential form