Veterinary medicine
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Maria Teresa Mandara
Course Regulation
Coorte 2015
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code 85054504
Teacher Maria Teresa Mandara
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline anatomo-patologiche ed ispettive veterinarie
Academic discipline VET/03
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)


Code 85055004
Teacher Maria Teresa Mandara
  • Maria Teresa Mandara
  • 65 ore - Maria Teresa Mandara
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline anatomo-patologiche ed ispettive veterinarie
Academic discipline VET/03
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Urinary System. In the first part physiopathology considerations associated to morphological changes of renal parenchyma and lower urinary tract are treated. Then anomalies of development, regressive changes, inflammatory lesions and neoplasia of kidney and lower urinary tract are extensively discussed. Urolithiasis and hydronephrosis are also treated.

Immunohemopoietic Sistem (IS). In the first a brief anatomical distribution of IS and turnover mechanisms of immunopoietic cells will be reviewed. After that, involution/regressive and reactive processes of the bone marrow and thymus will be treated.
Then the course will progress to the description of macroscopic pattern of regressive processes, vascular disorders, reactive hyperplasia, and inflammatory diseases of spleen and lymph nodes. When appropriate, inflammatory lesions of immunopoietic tissues will be included and discussed within systemic or multiorganic diseases. A session apart will be dedicated to neoplasia of immunopoietic tissueses.
Central and Peripheral Nervous System (CNS - PNS). In the first part, basic lesions and histological patterns of the nervous tissue lesions will be treated. The criteria for CNS and PNS gross diagnosis will be made from them. In the second part of the course, we will proceed to illustrate histological and distribution patterns of lesions applied to different classes of neurological diseases, specifically referred to species: vascular, infectious/infective, traumatic, toxic-metabolic, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Muscle System (MS). Basic lesions referred to scheletric muscle will be treated. The criteria for gross anatomy diagnosis will be made from them and applied to the different classes of domestic animal miopathies. Then, lesions and their phyopathological implications will be discussed for infectious/inflamamtory myopathies, metabolic/endocrine primary or secondary myopathies, ereditary myiodistrophies, and neuromuscular transmission disorders.
Endocrine System (ES). The most common gross anatomy patterns for hypophysis, adrenal glands, chemoreceptor organs, thyroid and parathyroids, and endocrine pancreas occurring in development disorders, regressive and progressive processes, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases will be treated in domestic animals. A wide physiopathology discussion will be related with morphological disorders of endocrine glands.
Reference texts - PS Marcato. Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria. Edagricole, Milano, 2008
- MD McGavin and JF Zachary. Patologia veterinaria sistematica. Ed. Italiana, Elsevier, Milano, 2007
We also suggest:
- MD McGavin and JF Zachary. Pathological basis of Veterinary Disease. IVth Ed. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, 2007
- MT Mandara et al. Atlante di Neuropatologia e Neuroimaging. Poletto ed., Milano, 2011.
Educational objectives The course gives information necessary for a morphological and pathogenetic study of lesions. Moreover, it gives a diagnostic algorithm aimed to identify the causes of diseases, including physic and biological etiology agents, referred to different organs and systems. Finally, based on physiopathologic considerations, the course indicates prognostic evaluations referred to the pathological patterns.
The main acquired information will be:
a) usefull information to apply diagnostic procedures in pathology;
b) knowledges about the main gross and histological lesions of organs and systems.
c) knowledges of gross patterns expressed by the main diseases of domestic animals.

The main abilities include:
a) ability in comprehension of factors and mechanisms producing lesions;
- using correct methods, to performe necropsy, gross examination of organs and pathology samples, b) cytological and histological exams
c) identification, classification and interpretation of basic lesions, to perform a morphological diagnosis of I level with eziopathogenetic considerations
d) to use clear definitions and correct medical language.

To know. Students must acquire the morphological and etiological classifications of pathological processes addressed to Urinary System, Immunoheamopoietic System, Nervous System, Endocrine System and Skeletal Muscle System. Moreover, based on the evaluation of the distribution pattern of the lesions, on physiopathologic and etiopathogenetic considerations, students must also identify an adequate differential diagnosis list related to species and discuss it in details. The learning process will progress from the morphological diagnosis to the etiological diagnosis and name of the disease.

To make. Based on the methods acquired during all the course of Veterinary Pathological Anatomy, students must be able to perform necropsies, gross examination of organs and anatomic sampling, and to show the right methodologies in the identification, classification and interpretation of basic lesions in order to elaborate a I level morphological diagnosis addressed to etiological differential diagnoses. Finally, students must be able to take and to arrange samples for further lab investigations.
Teaching methods The course consists in
- face-to-face lessons (45h) given on all the subjects indicated into the program
- Common Practical activities (11h) performed at the anatomical room or in the class room. They consist on dissection or interactive slide discussion, respectively. Practical training due at the anatomical room will be arranged in groups (max 15 students divided in groups of 4 students/each)
- Clinical Rotation activities (9h) performed at the Veterinary Pathology Service. During Clinical Rotation activities the student performs necropsies, write the gross morphological report and diagnosis, performs anatomic sample trimming and histological stains as well as histological examination and report. The access and work at the Anatomic room and histological labs is defined by special procedures which are available at VMD http://www.medvet.unipg.it/didattica/corsi-di-laurea/medicina-veterinaria-ciclo-unico-lm-42-d-m-270-2004/procedure-insegnamenti.
The activity schedule is available at VMD http://www.medvet.unipg.it/didattica
Extended program Urinary System
1. Anomalies of development and familial nephropathies (1.5h).
2. Renal regressive processes: bilateral cortical necrosis; papillary necrosis; renal infarction; glomerulonephrosis (lipidosis, diabetes, amyloidosis); ischemic, toxic, pigmentary tubulonephrosis; nephrotoxicosis; storage tubulonephrosis; hydronephrosis (1.5).
3. Inflammatory diseases. Glomerulonephrites, tubulointerstitial nephrites (TIN)(2h), suppurative nephrites; pyelonephritis; granulomatous and parasitic nephrites (1.5).
4. Extrarenal lesions of renal failure and nephrosic syndrome (1h).
5. Lesions of urinary bladder and lower urinary tract: anomalies of development; urolithiasis; acute and chronic cystitis; feline lower urinary tract disease (LUTD = Lower Urinary Tract Disease); Swine Uro-Genital Disease (SUGD)(1h).
6. Urinary System Neoplasia; Enzootic hematuria and bovine urinary bladder tumours (1h).

Immunohemopoietic System
1. Thymus: involution/atrophy/regressive processes, vascular changes, development diseases, hyperplastic reaction (Thymites)(2h).
2. Blood marrow: Hypoplasia/regressive and reactive changes. Blood marrow examination. Acquired changes: involution, atrophy/aplasia, efficient/non efficient hyperplasia, myelodisplasia/myelofibrosis, necrosis. Gross pathology of acute and chronic anemia (2h).
3. Lymph nodes: Reactive hyperplasia and lymphadenites. Small and large lymph nodes. Circulatory disturbances, lymph node emphysema, degenerative changes, phatological pigmentations, necrosis. lymph node hyperplasia: The FIV (2h). Classification and morphological patterns of lymphadenites: - Equine strangles; - Jowl abscess - Anthrax - Classical and african swine fever - lymph node tuberculosis - The Pseudotuberculosis, Tularemia, Actigranulomatoses, Rodhococcosis, Glanders, PWMWS, mycotic and parasite lymphadenites (2h)
4. Spleen: Regressive changes and splenites. Circulatory disturbances, development anormalities. Degenerative changes and pathological pigmentations. Spleen necrosis. Classification and morphological patterns of splenites: - Anthrax - Swine erysipelas - Equine Infectious Anemia - Necrobacillosis - Feline Infectious Peritonitis (2h). Diagnostic algorithm of splenomegaly (1h)
5. Hematopoietic Neoplasia. Classification. The Lymphoma: anatomic forms and species differences. Tumors of plasmacells; the thymoma; Mastocytosis and malignant Histiocytosis; Fibrohistiocytic nodules in canine speen (1h).
Central Nervous System
Basic lesions and histological patterns of the neurological diseases (1h).
Vascular diseases: - Stroke and global cortical ischemia; - Feline ischemic encephalopathy; - Fibrocartilagineous embolism and hemorrhagic progressive myelomalacia; - Post-anesthetic hemorrhagic poliomyelomalacia; - Neonatal maladjustment syndrome in foals; - Spontaneous hemorrhages (2h)
Inflammatory diseases: Histological patterns and etiology. Direct and indirect effets of infections. Viral diseases: morphological patterns. Non suppurative inflammatory diseases in dogs: Rabies - Aujeszky's disesase; - Canine Herpes Virus, CAV-1 and parvovirus: - Distemper; - Tick-borne encephalites. Non suppurative encephalites of unknown etiology (GME, NME, NLE); - Periventricular encephalitis and eosinophilic encephalitis; - Steroid-responsive meningoarteritis (2h); - Non suppurative inflammatory diseases of cats: - Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP); - Panleucopenia; - FIV infection; - Feline Leucemia Virus infection; - Borna disease. Non suppurative inflammatory diseases of horses: - Herpetic Encephalomyelitis; - Borna disease; - Equine Infectious Anemia; - Arbovirus Encephalites. Non suppurative inflammatory diseases of ruminants: - Visna; - Caprine arthritis encephalitis siyndrom; - Sporadic bovine meningoencephalomyelitis; - Herpetic meningoencephalomyelites; - Louping ill; - Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. Non suppurative inflammatory diseases of pigs: - Aujeszky'disease; - Suine Polioencephalomyelitis; - Encephalomyocarditis; - Vescicular disease; Post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (2h). Bacteric Inflammatory diseases: morphological patterns and etiology; - Thromboembolic meningoencephalitis; - Listeriosis; - Streptococcus meningoependymochoroiditis. Granulomatous diseases. Parasitic and mycotic diseases (2h).
Trauma: Classification and etiology. Cranial trauma, Spinal trauma, Peripheral nerve trauma: pathogenesis and physiopathology(2h).
Malformations: Cerebral disrhaphic defects; Spinal cord disrhaphyc defects; Dysontogenetic and Encephaloclastic defects; Cerebellar malformations; Hydrocephalus (2h).
Toxic and Metabolic diseases. Metabolic diseases: - Hepatic Encephalopathy; - Renal Encephalopathy; - Hypoglicemia; Lysosomal Storage diseases; - Maple syrup urine disease. Toxic diseases: - Equine toxic encephalomyelomalacia; - Equine nigropalidal encephalomalacia; - Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia; - Lead and mercury, ethylene glycol poisoning; - Edema disease. Nutritional diseases: - Cerebrocortical Necrosis; -Swayback and enzootic ataxia; - Salt poisoning; - Focal symmetrical polyoencephalomalacia in pigs; - Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (EDM); - Equine Lower Motoneuron Disease (EMND); - Thiamine deficiency in carnivores; - Ammon's Horn necrosis in cats (2h).
Neoplasms of Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Classification and morphological patterns of primary tumors (1h)
Degenerative Diseases: Classification. Neuonal degeneration: - Lower motoneuron diseases; - Cerebellar cortex degenerations; - Multisytem Neuronal abiotrophies; - dysautonomia. Axonopathies. - Degenerative myelopathies; - Neuroaxonal dystrophies; - Weaver syndrome. The myelin disorders; - Leucodystrophies; - Spongiform encephalopathies (1h).
Skeletal Muscle System
Basic lesions of skeletal muscle. Atrophies and hypertrophies. Necrosis and regeneration.
Inflammatory myopathies: Classification and etiology. - Pigeon fever and purulent myosites; - Equine streptococcical myosites; - Actinobacillosis; - Malignant edema; Syntomatic Anthrax; - Botulism. Viral Myosites. Parasitic myosites: - Eosinophylic myositis; - Sarcosporidiosis; - Trichinellosis; - Cysticercosis; - Neospora and Toxoplasma infections; Leishmaniosis.
Immunomediated myopathies: - Masticatory Muscle Myositis (MMM); - Polimyositis; - Extraocular muscle myositis; - Dermatomyositis; - Immunomediated myositis in horses; - Roeckl granuloma.
Paraneoplastic and drug-induced myosites (2,5h).
Non inflammatory myopathies. Endocrine myopathies. Nutritional and metabolic myopathies: Ischemic myopathies; White muscle disease; - Equine Polisaccaride Myopathy Storage (EPMS); - exercise rhabdomyolysis. Toxic and electrolyte myopathies: ionophore myopathies; - phytotoxin myopathies; - electrolyte imbalance myopathies. Congenital hereditary myopathies. Neoplastic myopathies (2,5h).
Endocrine System
Hypophysis: Development disorders; Circulatory disturbances and regressive changes; Inflammatory processes and neoplasms. Anatomopathological changes addressed to hypo- and hyperactivity of Hypophysis, Adrenal Gland (2h), Thyroid, Parathyroid, Endocrine pancreas (2h).


Code 85054505
Teacher Maria Teresa Mandara
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline anatomo-patologiche ed ispettive veterinarie
Academic discipline VET/03
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
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