Veterinary medicine
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Cecilia Dall'aglio
  • Cecilia Dall'aglio
  • 50 ore - Cecilia Dall'aglio
Course Regulation
Coorte 2022
Learning activities
Discipline della struttura e funzione degli organismi animali
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Italian language
Characteristics of animal eukaryotic cells. Cell membrane structure and cellular organelles. Characteristics of different animal tissues.
The stages of embryonic development, up to gastrulation and the development of embryonic leaflets. Placenta structure.
Reference texts
R. Colombo - Cell Biology (vol.1) e Tissue Biology (vol.2) - Ed. Edi-Ermes
Recommended book:
L. Ressel – Principi d’Identificazione in Citologia nel Cane e nel gatto (seconda edizione) – Poletto Editore

During the theoretical activity, slides are used and then made available to the students
Educational objectives
The acquired notions are the basis for studying the Anatomy of the Domestic Animals and understanding the microscopic and macroscopic structure and thus the functionality of the different anatomical systems.
To know: The student must know the cytology, with particular attention to the differences between the procariotic and euchariotic cell and the structural characteristics of the euchariotic animal cells, must know the histology, with particular attention to the characteristics of epithelial, connectival, muscular and nervous tissues, and must know the embryology, with particular attention to the different phases following gametogenesis (fertilization, segmentation, gastrulation and development of embryonic leaflets and their evolution). It must also know the structure of the placenta in the different animal species.
To know how to do: Students must be able to use the optical microscope and recognize a tissue by observing a histological section and highlighting its distinctive features
The student must
-know the structure of eukaryotic cells and organelles contained within it
-know the structure of tissues and understand their structural and functional differences
The student must
- be able to recognize a tissue on histological examination
-be able to describe the structure of tissues
The student must
-be able to evaluate the "normal" aspect of a tissue
The student must be able
to present in an appropriate and complete way the acquired knowledge demonstrating to apply a correct approach of the description of a histological structure
The student must be able
- consult and understand scientific texts and bibliographic updates, related to histology
- possess a mastery of the subject such as to guarantee an acceptable basis for continuing studies
In order to understand most of the information provided during lectures, it is advisable to have cellular biology notions
Teaching methods
Theoretical activity on all subjects of the course in a classroom of the Polo Didattico.

Practical activity in the Optical Microscopy laboratory (classroom VIII of the Polo Didattico) for the observation and identification of tissue sections.
Other information
At the end of the scheduled practical activities, students have the opportunity to review the histological sections near to the exam dates. No other optional training units are provided.
Learning verification modality
For the evaluation of the set objective, the exam includes a practical test, a written test and an oral test. The practical test takes place in Room VIII of the “Polo Didattico” while the written and oral tests are held in a teaching classroom, at the Historical Building. The dates are shown in the exam calendar.
With the practical test, the student's ability to recognize histological preparations is examined and evaluated.
With the written and oral tests, the student's knowledge is examined and evaluated with reference to the topics covered in the lesson and his / her ability to exhibit through the use of correct terminology.
The practical test is a barrier test and is carried out at each appeal before the other two tests. It lasts about 10 minutes and consists of the observation of three histological preparations with an optical microscope and in their identification. To pass the test it is necessary to recognize 2 preparations out of 3; the recognition of 3 out of 3 preparations implies the possibility of the attribution of the “lode” to the final vote.
The written test is a barrier test performed at each exam before the oral exam. It has a duration of 60 minutes and consists of 30 questions with answers to a choice between 4 possible, of which only one is the correct one. The questions are divided into 3 blocks of topics (Cytology, 6 questions; Histology, 18 questions; Embryology, 6 questions) covering the whole program covered. The correct answers are assigned a point. No points or no penalties are assigned to answers wrong or not given.
The written test allows a maximum of 30 points to be obtained and is considered passed if the score obtained is equal to or greater than 18, with no less than 4 correct answers for the cytology block, 10 for the histology block and 4 for the embryology block.
The oral exam includes 3 questions, one for each part of the program (Cytology, Histology, Embryology) extracted by lot from the student, and has a duration of approximately 30 minutes.
The test is evaluated based on the following parameters:
a) argumentative rigor from 12 to 22;
b) completeness from 12 to 22;
c) language properties from 12 to 22;
d) depth of analysis and connection capacity from 12 to 22.
Each score corresponds to the following class of judgment:
<12 = insufficient (Widespread and serious deficiencies, inconsistencies and errors in the argument; poor and inadequate language; difficult and non-autonomous construction of the speech; failure or incorrect application of argumentative constraints and logical connections)
From 12 to 15 = sufficient (Some shortcomings, inconsistencies and errors in the argument; logical articulation of the discourse, but excessively simple and essential exposure; autonomous construction of the discourse with a very summary expression of the contents; adequate but stunted application of constraints and logical connections )
From 15 to 18 = good (Rare shortcomings, inconsistencies and errors in the argument; logical articulation of the argumentative path, autonomous construction of discourse with appropriate use of specific language; complete application of constraints and logical connections)
From 18 to 22 = excellent (Absence of deficiencies, inconsistencies and errors in the argument; logical, clear and rich articulation of the argumentative path; autonomous construction of the speech with appropriate and complete use of the specific language; complete application of the constraints and logical connections also with original choices)
The test is passed if the score obtained is equal to or greater than 36 points.
The achievement of the maximum score in all the tests will entail the attribution of the “lode” if the oral test proves “absolute argumentative, logical and linguistic mastery; autonomous, secure, rich and articulated construction of the discourse, supported by a significant original contribution deriving from the use of multiple study sources.
The examination in its entirety is passed if the overall score is equal to or greater than 60/100 (equal to 18/30).
Extended program
-Principal techniques for the sectioning and staining of histological sections and preparations for light and electronic microscopies. (2 hours)
- Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cell membrane structure and transport systems. Membrane and intercellular junctions. (4 hours)
- Cytoplasm structure: cytoplasmic matrix, plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles. (5 hours)
- Epithelial tissue
Coating epithelia (4 hours)
Secreting epithelia (3.5 hours)
Sensory epithelia (0.5 hours)
-Connectival tissue
Connectival tissues properly said (3 hours)
White and brown adipose tissues (1 hour)
- Blood Tissue (3 hours)
-Cartilage Tissue (1.5 hours)
-Compact Bone Tissue and Ossification (3.5 hours)
-Striated skeletal muscular tissue (2 hours)
-Striated cardiac muscular tissue (1 hour)
-Smooth muscular tissue (1 hour)
-Nervous tissue
General features (1 hour)
Nervous cells (2 hours)
Glial cells (1 hour)
Early development stages in mammals, annexes embryonal and placenta: classification of the placenta according to the histological structure and the disposition of the corial villi. (4 hours)

Classroom VIII, Polo Didattico, observation of histological sections of tissues - (7 hours for 4).
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