Food technology and biotechnology
Study-unit Code
Tecnologie olivicolo-olearie
Franco Famiani
Course Regulation
Coorte 2024
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code A002146
Teacher Primo Proietti
  • Primo Proietti
  • 54 ore - Primo Proietti
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline della produzione e gestione.
Academic discipline AGR/03
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents In summary, the program includes:
Uses, organography and biology of the olive tree.
Life/vegetative/productive cycle. Propagation techniques.
Cultivation techniques (pruning).
Control of production quantity/quality/cost/environmental impact.
Valorization of by-products.
Reference texts 1. Proietti P. - Lecture notes and slides PDF available in UNISTUDIUM.
For further information on the basis of individual interests of the students:
- Proietti e Regni. Manuale per la gestione sostenibile degli oliveti. OLIVE4CLIMATE
- Bandino e Dettori, Manuale di olivicoltura. Consorzio Interprovinciale per la Frutticoltura di Cagliari, Oristano e Nuoro.
- Fontanazza. Manuale di olivicoltura.
- Autori Vari. L’ulivo e l’olio. Bayer CropScience S.r.l.
- Autori Vari. Tecniche di produzione in olivicoltura. COI
- Peri. The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Handbook. John Wiley & Sons.
- Proietti et al. La potatura dell'olivo. ARUSIA
- Disciplinari di produzione delle olive da olio. UNASCO.
- Manuale per la buona pratica agricola in olivicoltura. A.Co.Pr.Ol
- Fiorino. Olea - Trattato di Olivicoltura. Edagricole
Educational objectives The general objective of the course is to provide students with in-depth knowledge of the socio-economic-environmental importance of olive growing in Italy and in the world and on morphology, biology, eco-physiology, resistance to environmental stress, genetic improvement, biotechnologies, propagation, pruning and training systems for olive tree and agronomic use of by-products, in order to create solid foundations for the design, planting and management of olive groves in order to optimize the quantitative-qualitative and economic results and reduce the environmental impact.
The student will acquire skills to identify the factors of production and their interrelationships in the olive grove in order to define cause-effect and hypotheses-theses to the variation of them to rationalize the planting and management of the olive groves and to address / solve related problems, with particular reference to propagation, choice of training systems, pruning and energetic and agronomic valorization of by-products.
The student will thus acquire the ability to apply the knowledge learned in different environmental and cultural situations and, in addition, he will learn to express himself clearly and technically adequate in the olive context.
The specific objectives will be to allow to the students to acquire and develop specific knowledge on:
- socio-economic-environmental importance of olive growing;
- organography, biology, ecophysiology, phenology and environmental and anthropic factors interacting in olive systems in order to pursue high quantity / quality productions and sustainable from an economic, social and environmental point of view;
- safeguarding of the olive germplasm, regulations, physiological bases, techniques and structures of propagation and breeding of the olive tree in the nursery for obtaining plants with adequate guarantees of genetic, health and agronomic quality, at low costs and respecting the environment ;
- principles and techniques for the control of the vegetative and productive activity of the olive tree, with particular reference to propagation and biotechnologies, pruning and training of the trees, to pursue the above objectives;
- agronomic volorization of the by-products of the olive oil production chain in a circular economy logic: characteristics and energy use of pruning residues, machines for harvesting, shredding, packaging; characteristics, agronomic use and effects of vegetation waters and pomace as such or composted.
- cultivation strategies to valorize the product, improving its quality also in a logic of nutraceutical value, typification, differentiation and sustainability (LCA, Carbon footprint, generation of sustainability credits, green consumption, etc.).
Prerequisites In order to achieve the learning objectives of the teaching of Oliveculture I it is necessary that the student has passed the exam of .
The student, at the beginning of the lessons, should have acquired the basic knowledge of the botany, the principles of agronomy and agricultural ecology and the objectives and techniques of genetic improvement. This knowledge, in fact, constitute a useful requisite to be able to successfully attend the course and prepare adequately the exam.
Teaching methods The course is organized as follows:
Lectures on the topics listed in the program under "lectures".
Laboratory exercises on the topics listed in the program under "classroom exercises / laboratory".
Exercises on the topics listed in the program under "classroom exercises / laboratory".
Field exercises on the topics listed in the program in the "field activities".
Activities in foreign language: if any (to be agreed with the students and to be included in lectures).
Tutorial support activities, in addition to teaching hours, programmed in number of hours suitable to meet the needs of students.
Educational visits and seminars with experts on the topics listed in the program under "educational visits / seminars with experts".
Some exercises will be carried out for groups of students in relation to the capacity of the laboratories.
Other information The lesson frequency is strongly recommended.
Reception timetable: Morning and afternoon from Monday to Thursday and Friday morning.
Prof. Primo Proietti - tel. 0755856257 - mobile 3485174454 - e-mail primo.proietti@unipg.it - facebook primo proietti - (Specific interactive Facebook or Whatsapp group - ask to the teacher)
Learning verification modality For the assessment of learning of knowledge relating to the course, there is an oral exam or a written exam.
Both exams, based on the preferences of the students, can be supported in one or two solutions on different dates, each corresponding to an equivalent part of the program.
The exams will help to determine the level of knowledge acquired, the analytical skills and independent revision of the knowledge to solve problems related to the design and management of olive groves. The exams will also assess the presentation skills of the student.
The oral test will consist of a discussion of about one hour (or half hour for each solution) to ascertain the level of knowledge about the contents of the program and the processing capacity / implementation of the knowledge acquired by the student. The oral exam will also evaluate the communication skills of the student in relation to the property of language of the discipline and the organization of a personal exhibition on the contents of the program.
The written exam will consist of 3 open-ended questions and in the critical description of images related to the topics of the program. The test will last up to 2 hours. The written test, like the oral one, will ensure the level of knowledge about the contents of the program and the processing capacity / implementation of the knowledge gained by the student. This test will also serve to evaluate the ability of communication in writing of the student in relation to language of the discipline and the organization of a personal exhibition on the contents of the program.
For information on support services for students with disabilities and / or SLD, visit the page http://www.unipg.it/disabilita-e-dsa
Extended program General aspects of olive growing: spread, production and consumption in the world and in Italy. Cultivation strategies to reduce the environmental impact and enhance the product, improving its quality also in a logic of differentiation and typicalization (taking into account, in particular, the impact of cultivation techniques on the sensory characteristics of oil and table olives), of enhancement nutraceutical values ¿¿and improvement of economic and environmental sustainability (oil-food combinations, monovarietal oils, organic products, ecosystem services, certifications relating to life cycle analysis - LCA, carbon footprint, sustainability credits, green consumption, etc.) . Morphology: general characteristics of the plant, root system, aerial system (types of shoots and branches, buds, leaf, inflorescence and flowers, fruit). Biology: life cycle (juvenile phase, increasing productivity phase, productive maturity phase, senescence phase), vegetative cycle (vegetative rest, budding, sprout growth, lignification) and reproductive cycle (induction / differentiation of flower buds and factors involved, dormancy, emission of inflorescences and flowering, pollination, fertilization, sterility and compatibility between cultivars, the need for pollinators and their disposition, fertilization and fruit setting, growth and metabolism of the fruit and its control, fruit ripening and evolution of the characteristics of the product) . Ecophysiology, genotype-environment interactions, quantity and quality of the product: photosynthesis and respiration, light interception and response to light intensity, temperature, CO2, water availability, distribution of assimilates, alternation of production and contrast strategies, resistance to environmental stress ( water shortage / excess, low and high temperatures, salinity, air pollutants, environmental factors). Principles of genetic improvement: objectives, methodologies (clonal selection, crossbreeding, mutagenesis, biotechnology), molecular markers. Propagation techniques: regulations relating to the propagation of the olive tree; mother plants; choice of the propagation system; anatomical bases; techniques, structures, substrates and containers for gamic and agamic propagation (rooted sucker, cutting, grafting, micropropagation), plant care after propagation, hardening and groowing; genetic, sanitary and agronomic quality of plants. Training and pruning forms: Training forms (vase, polyconic vase, bushy vase, globe, mono-cone, vertical axis, palmette) and selection criteria; biological and physiological bases, purposes, techniques, methods and equipment for farm pruning, production pruning, reconstitution / rejuvenation pruning, sanitation pruning and mechanical pruning. The by-products of the olive oil production chain: pruning residues, characteristics, machines for harvesting, shredding, packaging and possible uses; characteristics, agronomic use and effects on the soil, plant and product of the vegetation waters and of the pomace as it is or composted.


Code A002147
Teacher Franco Famiani
  • Franco Famiani
  • 54 ore - Franco Famiani
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline della produzione e gestione.
Academic discipline AGR/03
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Design, establishment and cultural techniques of olive groves in relation to the utilization of the production and cultivation system (conventional, integrated or organic).
Reference texts L’ulivo e l’olio. Coordinamento scientifico M. Pisante, P. Inglese, G. Lercker. Bayer CropScience.
Trattato di Olivicoltura. Cordinato da P. Fiorino. Edagricole, Bologna.
La raccolta delle olive. Autori Franco Famiani e Riccardo Gucci. Edagricole, Bologna.
Production techniques in olive growing. International Olive Council.
Olive Growing. Editors D. Barranco, R. Fernandez-Escobar and l. Rallo. Junta de Andalucia and Ediciones Mundi-Prensa.
Educational objectives The aim of the course is to provide students with knowledge of systems and techniques for a correct cultivation of olive, with particular regard given to safeness and quality of food and impact of the cultivation on the environment.
Prerequisites In order to understand the subjects of the course on olive growing it is necessary that the students have a good background on agronomy and arboriculture.
Teaching methods Lectures on all the subjects of the course.
Exercise/Practical lectures, also in the field, on: design and management of an orchard cultivated according to a conventional, integrated or organic method.
Other information Attendance is not compulsory.
Place of teaching: Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Studies of Perugia.
Learning verification modality The evaluation of the knowledge acquired by the student will be done through an oral test.
The oral test consists on an interview, of about 1 hour, aiming at evaluating the knowledge acquired by the student and his/her ability to use it to establish and manage, in a profitable and environmental friendly way, the different olive cultivation models/systems. The oral test will also allow to evaluate the communication skills of the student.
Extended program MODELS OF OLIVE PLANTATIONS. Classification of the different olive plantations (traditional, intensive, high density and superintensive). Traditional olive groves: planting density; age, dimensions, sanitary status and yield potential of the trees; potential for the mechanization of cultural practices. Intensive, high density and superintensive olive groves: planting density; economical life of olive groves; vegetative-reproductive behavior of the trees. Strength and weak points of intensive, high density and superintensive olive orchards.
OLIVE CULTIVARS. Classification (oil, table dual purpose cultivars) and description of morphological, biological and agronomical characteristics and oil quality of the main olive cultivars of Italy and world. International standards for morphological and genetic characterization of olive varieties and accessions.
DESIGN AND ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW OLIVE ORCHARDS. Choice of the site for the new plantation. Choice of the cultivars in relation to productive/commercial purposes of the farm, cultivation method (conventional, integrated or organic) and pollination. Choice of tree spacing in relation to the type of grove (intensive, high density or superintensive), water availability, mechanization of cultural practices and cultivation method. Choice of the trees in relation to the type of olive grove. Techniques for the establishment of new olive orchards.
SOIL MANAGEMENT. Classification of the different techniques for the soil management in olive growing: tillage, use of herbicides, mulching, natural and artificial green covers, combination of different techniques. Choice of the soil management system in relation to water availability, slope of the soil and type of plantations. Management of the different techniques of soil management in relation to the different type of olive cultivations and effects on soil, tree water status and vegetative-reproductive behavior and oil quality.
FERTILIZATION. Basic fertilization at the establishing of the new olive orchard. Requirement of nutrients in relation to tree age, growth and productive phase and model of plantations. Effects of fertilization on yield quantity and quality. Methods for the determination of nutrient requirements of the trees. Choice of fertilizers and timing and modality of distribution in relation to the type of fertilizer, tree age, water availability, soil management and plantation model. Use of biostimulants. Definition of a fertilization plan.
IRRIGATION. Requirement of water in relation to tree age, growth and productive phase and model of plantations. Specificity of drip irrigation in olive growing. Sub-irrigation. Most frequent mistakes in olive irrigation management. Timing and modalities of water distribution. Use of saline water. Effects of irrigation on vegetative and reproductive activities and on oil quality. Irrigation in water deficit.
HARVESTING. Definition of the best time for harvesting in relation to productive/commercial purposes of the farm. Ripening indices. Harvesting of olives from the soil and from nets spread under the trees. Manual harvesting. Harvesting with hand-held machines. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. Harvesting with canopy shakers. Harvesting with straddle machines. New machines for lateral continuous harvesting. Factors which affect the detachment of the fruits and the efficiency of the different harvesting systems. Effects of the harvesting system on oil quality. Type of containers for the transport of harvested olives and potential storage.
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