Animal science
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Roberto Romani
  • Roberto Romani
  • 54 ore - Roberto Romani
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Learning activities
Attività formative affini o integrative
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Opzionale (Optional)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
The course aims to give knowledge on the morphology, systematic and biology of insect pollinators (honeybees, bumblebees and solitary bees). Management of the beehive. Honeybees products. Plants visited by the bees. Honeybee's pests and pathogens. Rearing of the Silkworm.
Reference texts
Alberto Contessi - Le api, biologia, allevamento, prodotti. Edagricole
A. Pistoia - Apicoltura tecnica e pratica - Edizioni l'Informatore Agrario, Verona, II^ edizione
Other material will be provided by the teacher.
Educational objectives
Knowledges 1. Basic knowledges of the honeybees and other pollinators
2. General morphological and bio-ethological features of the honeybees
3. General morphological and bio-ethological features of the bumblebees, masonbees, leaf-cutting bees and alkaly bees 4. The italian apistic flora. Italian monofloral honeys 5. Beekeeping 6. Guided plant pollination with honeybees and other insect pollinators 7. Honeybee parasites and pathogens 8. Control methods of honeybee parasites 9. Honeybee's products 10. Melissopalynology and biomonitoring 11. Biology and physiology of the silkworm. Skills 1. Distinguish the main insect pollinator species 2. Distinguish the different honeybee castes 3. Evaluate the devopment and health status of a given colony 4. Evaluate the apistic flora of a given area 5. Recognize and diagnose the main honeybees diseases and parasites 6. Manage a small apiary 7. Observe and dissect insects under a stereomicroscope 8. Management of a silkworm rearing facility Behaviours 1. Be conscious of the key role of insect pollinators in order to guarantee and maintain crop productions and wild plants reproduction 2. Be conscious of the importance of the beekeeping as economic activity thanks to the different productions 3. Be conscious of
the potential relevance of the silkworm rearing.
In order to attend the lectures of the course, no specific requirements are needed
Teaching methods
The course is organised as follows: - class lectures on the different parts of the program - laboratory practical exercises on the identification of the different pollinator species
Other information
Classes will be given at the DSA3
Learning verification modality
The final exam consists of a written test with short questions and open questions, lasting about 40 min.
Extended program
The main objective of the class it to give the students basic and applied knowledge on the morphology, anatomy, physiology and bio.ethology of the most important insect pollinating species, particularly Apis mellifera, as well as the silkworm Bombyx mori L. Apidology Ecosystem, natural and man-modified ecosystems :role of arthropods with emphasis on pollinating insects. Bees systematic: the species and races of bees. Apis mellifera - External morphology of the different castes (worker, drone and queen), head and its appendages, thorax and its appendages. Morpho- functional adaptations of different organs. Apis mellifera - Anatomy and general physiology of the cuticle, muscles, nervous system, circulatory system, food canal, secretory and excretory system. Reproductive system of the queen and drone. reproductive behavior. The beehive biology. Development and behavior of queen and drones. Development and behavior of workers inside and outside the hive. The honeybees language. Insect pollination. The main plant species present in Italy, useful for the honeybees. The nectar. The honeydew as food for the honeybees, the main honeydew honey of Italy. The pollen related to the italian plant species visited by the honeybees. Bumblebees: biology, development and rearing. Megachile and Osmia: biology, development and behavior. The "Nets Trapping" technique applied to Osmia and Megachile. Guided pollination of the main crops, in the field and greenhouse. The main pests and pathogens of the honeybees: Varroa, Acarapis, Wax Moths, Aethina tumida. American Foulbrood, European Foulbrood, Chalkbrood, Sacbrood Virus. Honeybees used as biomonitoring organism. National and regional beekeeping legislation. Importance of beekeeping in Italy. Beehive, society or colony. Apiary and types of beehives. Beekeeping equipment. Beekeeping techniques and operations (moving, divisions, grouping, insertion / substitution of frames, nutrition, leveling of colonies, introduction of queen bees). Seasonal visits and evaluation of colony development by assigning selective scores. Principles of mass selection. Breeding techniques for queen bees. Fertilization nucleus. Management of the hive in terms of health and productivity. Nomadism: methods of movement and safety policies. Bee productions: honey, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, poison, swarm production, selected queen bees. Behavioral aspects of native and imported ligustic honey bees; Single and multifloral honey: pollen, physico-chemical and organoleptic characterization. Dietetic-nutritional and medical aspects of bee products. Silkworm rearing Rearing: anatomy, physiology, life cycle, feeding. Pathogens of the silkworm and their management and prophylaxis. The mulberry: the different cultivated varieties, rearing, pruning techniques, other uses. Mulberry pests. Facilities for the rearing of the silkworm, semi-automatic and automatic rearing techniques. The silk: traditional and innovative use.
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