Medical, veterinary and forensic biotechnological sciences
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Martina Mandarano
  • Martina Mandarano
  • Stefania Pieroni
  • 28 ore - Martina Mandarano
  • 24 ore - Stefania Pieroni
Course Regulation
Coorte 2021
Learning activities
Medicina di laboratorio e diagnostica
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Molecular basis of intrinsic and extrinsic causes of pathology in human.
Reference texts
Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th EditionAbbas & Aster Kumar;
The Biology of Cancer (2014) Robert A. Weinberg
Educational objectives
The basis of human pathologies studies the causes (etiology) and pathological phenomena (pathogenesis), at the molecular and cellular level, of disease with respect to the biology and physiology of the cell. The course allows to acquire knowledge about the basic mechanisms that underlie the most frequent diseases in humans such as cancer or cardiovascular diseases. The main objective of the course is to acquire knowledge about:
intrinsic genetic molecular pathologies and epigenetic alterations physical, chemical and biological causes of disease associated with molecular mechanisms of cell death.
The final oral test and optional seminars are tools to evaluate the degree of learning and the ability to communicate and explain, in a simple, but at the same time rigorous, immediate and exhaustive way the knowledge acquired. The skills acquired in the study of this discipline allows the student to achieve a broad overview of the correlation between the human genome, the environment and the development of pathologies and allows, to obtain the tools to have a clear picture of the causes of the pathologies and their specific mechanism of onset and development of the most frequent diseases in order to propose suitable behaviors and treatments as a future medical biotechnologist.
The acquisition of knowledge relevant to the course of HISTOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL BASIS OF HUMAN DISEASES requires the achievement of notions relevant to Biology and Genetics, Biochemistry and Physiology and Molecular Pathology. The skills obtained in the aforementioned disciplines are essential for the student to fully understand the concepts of etiopathogenesis of histology and pathological anatomy at the molecular and cellular level. The student thus prepared at the didactic level will make a significant profit from the course.
Teaching methods
Students are given lectures and laboratory practices. The lessons deal with the part of the program of the course of study concerning the extrinsic causes of disease, with greater reference to environmental pathology, issues of frequent pathologies, such as oncological and cardiovascular pathologies, which the future medical biotechnologist will face during his profession. Each lesson lasts two hours in which the specific topic is administered, correlating it with the others already exposed, to allow the student to have a broad view of the topics covered. Students are offered to conduct, at their option, in-depth seminars on the topics covered during the lessons. The seminars are held in groups of two or three students in the presence of the other students of the course. For this purpose, the teacher provides students with bibliographic material in English concerning the subject, the subject of the seminar which will be presented using IT media (Power-Point and / or similar). The preparation will be completed by practical exercises to be carried out at the laboratory with practical examples of technologies applied to the pathologies studied that will complete the student's training.
Learning verification modality
The student's preparation will be verified in an oral test at the end of the course. The verification of the student's preparation has an average duration of thirty minutes depending on the degree of knowledge of the topics covered and on the student's exposure skills. The test consists of three questions concerning the discipline studied concerning: molecular and cellular pathology of intrinsic and extrinsic causes of disease; cellular and molecular pathology especially oncological and cardiovascular; technology concerning the practical laboratory technologies offered in the course. The questions are administered by different teachers to ensure maximum homogeneity and objectivity of evaluation. The oral exam is fundamental for the verification of the knowledge acquired by the student, of his expository ability and of the mastery of the studied subject with particular reference to the ability to connect between the different topics.
Extended program
Etiology and Pathogenesis of Diseases. Molecular knowledge of the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic causes in pathologies. Genome and epigenetics impact of physical, chemical or biological agents as a cause of disease.
-Physical agents. Non ionizing and ionizing radiation. -Chemical and environmental agents. Environmental pollution.
- Free radicals.
Oncology: benign and malignant tumors.
Impact of toxic agents on oncogenesis. Molecular pathology of tumors. Carcinogenesis concept. Oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Cancer and inheritance. DNA repair mechanisms and related pathologies. Angiogenesis. Invasiveness concept. Metastasis. Vascular pathology.
Atheroma formation. Molecular mechanisms of plaque formation and pathological evolution.
The practical workshops will focus on the following topics:
Introductory laboratory,
RNA extraction
Gene expression Unit
Molecular Cloning
Cell culture Basics: Plate, split and freeze human cells
Signal Transduction
Cancer Pharmacology
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