International relations
Study-unit Code
Conflitti internazionali, studi strategici e analisi di politica estera
Francesco Randazzo
  • Francesco Randazzo
  • 42 ore - Francesco Randazzo
Course Regulation
Coorte 2021
Learning activities
Attività formative affini o integrative
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Opzionale (Optional)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Italian language
The course covers topics ranging from the birth of the Italian army to its use in various international theaters; from the analysis of the various military corps to the different Italian missions deployed in the twentieth century in Europe, Asia and Africa.
Reference texts
For students attending the course:
J. Whittam, Storia dell’esercito italiano. 1861-1940, Odoya, 2014;
A. Pagani, Manuale di intelligence e servizi segreti, Rubbettino, 2014.
Non-attendants will have to bring in addition the volume M. Ponte, Eroi di una guerra segreta. Le scomode verità delle «missioni di pace» italiane, Longanesi, 2018
Educational objectives
To offer, within the general framework of the history of military institutions and the dynamics of war in the twentieth century, an in-depth knowledge of the history of the Italian Army and of the other armed forces of our country, from the dawn of the unitary state to the threshold of the year two thousand. Knowing the military strategies, the composition of the Italian army, the aims of the missions in a foreign land offers students the possibility to better distinguish the Italian military structure and its transformations over time.
A good knowledge of the general history between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries could facilitate the study of the subject.
Teaching methods
The teaching activity includes lectures in the classroom, participation in conferences and seminars on topics related to the course, video projections or films that enrich the contents of the course. It is also expected that students will be able, in the second part of the course, to discuss in groups, or individually, specific topics on which they will be proposed by the teacher in-depth.
If the health emergency continues to require it, teaching will be delivered in mixed mode
Other information
Class Attendance is not required but strongly advised
Learning verification modality
The final exam consists in an oral examination, of about 25-30 minutes, which aims at evaluating the acquisition of sufficient knowledge on the topics of the course.
The oral exam also tests the student’s ability to communicate their ideas effectively. Students are assessed on language skills such as the fluency to explain and define academic terms and concepts, and the ability to understand and respond clearly to questions.
The oral test may be replaced by a written paper (short essay) in which the student will be able to undertake individual work on a topic of his or her choice from those identified with the lecturer.
Extended program
From 4 May 1861, when the Italian army was officially born, to 1 January 2005, when the compulsory conscription ended, almost one hundred and fifty years passed, in which the history of the army largely coincides with that of our country. History of public order interventions, when the regiments of infantrymen and bersaglieri of the liberal age are "the wire that holds the nation together after having united it"; history of colonial ambitions in East Africa, Libya, Albania; dramatic history of wars, on the Karst, on the Asiago plateau, on the Piave, in the desert of el-Alamein, in the icy steppes of the Don; of nuclear strategies and of contrasts between blocks in the years of the Cold War and, more recently, of missions abroad, from Lebanon to Somalia, from Iraq to Afghanistan. But also, of course, the history of the army in times of peace: the rites of conscription, the simulations in front of the military councils, the great parades on the occasion of national holidays, the gatherings of arms associations, the peculiar characteristics of the different military corps, the songs of consent and dissent.
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