Unit PHYSICS
 Course
 Civil and environmental engineering
 Studyunit Code
 A002070
 Curriculum
 In all curricula
 Teacher
 Alessandro Rossi
 Teachers

 Alessandro Rossi
 Maura Graziani (Codocenza)
 Hours
 72 ore  Alessandro Rossi
 24 ore (Codocenza)  Maura Graziani
 CFU
 12
 Course Regulation
 Coorte 2021
 Offered
 2021/22
 Learning activities
 Base
 Area
 Fisica e chimica
 Academic discipline
 FIS/01
 Type of studyunit
 Obbligatorio (Required)
 Type of learning activities
 Attività formativa monodisciplinare
 Language of instruction
 Italian
 Contents
 Dimensions, errors and statistical analysis. Simple physical models, approximations and validity limits. Classical mechanics and dynamics. Statics. Force fields. Energy and work. Harmonic oscillator. Gravitation. Conservation principles.
Maxwell's equations and their main applications.  Reference texts
 Elementi di Fisica, Mazzoldi, Nigro, Voci
Elementi di Fisica II, Elettromagnetismo e Onde. MazzoldiNigroVoci.  Educational objectives
 At the end of the course the student should have acquired (descriptor Dublin 1) the main basic knowledge of the mechanics of the point, of particle systems and rigid body, and have assimilated the fundamentals of universal gravitation. The student must have a thorough knowledge of the principles of conservation in physics, the force fields and their specific properties and the elementary models for the treatment of complex mechanical systems.
Students will also be provided with the basis for understanding the fundamental principles of electromagnetism and Maxwell's equations starting from the observation of the natural electromagnetic phenomena.
The main skills acquired (ability to apply their knowledge, descriptor Dublin 2, and to adopt the appropriate approach under independent judgment, Dublin descriptor 3) will consist of the ability to model physical phenomena, together with the skills to solve exercises and problems and the ability to individually develop simple demonstrations based on the extension and application of the knowledge acquired.  Prerequisites
 To successfully address the study of the Physics Course and to more easily understand the topics covered, a solid knowledge of basic mathematics ( equations of various degrees , inequalities , systems of equations), trigonometry , elementary geometry and analytical geometry (study of functions, etc.) is mandatory. It is also required the knowledge of vectors and vector operations. For a deeper understanding of the initial topics of kinematics covered in the course, the knowledge of the basic techniques of differentiation and integration is useful. This knowledge becomes mandatory with progressing of the course even though the parallel treatment of these topics in the course Analysis I should help the student. Knowledge of all the mathematical techniques listed and the ability to apply them effectively to solve problems are prerequisites essential to follow the course with profit.
 Teaching methods
 The course is organized in facetoface lectures. There are 96 hours of lectures (72 for the Physics I and 24 for Physics II). Each lesson is typically a 30minute explanation and 15 minutes of training with solution of problems and questions and discussion of applications. At the end of each cycle of thematically consistent lessons there are scheduled classroom exercises conducted by the teacher and consisting in solving problems. The hours dedicated to tutorials and practical training are in addition to those dedicated to lectures. The students are also offered to participate to four written tests with open answers for evaluation and selfassessment.
 Other information
 Optional but strongly advised.
 Learning verification modality
 The assessment of the level of student knowledge and ability achieved by the student is carried out consistently throughout the course. In fact, students are given 4 "in progress" written tests at the end of major specific blocks of lectures thematically consistent. The purpose is in progress verification of the level of knowledge achieved by the student on the subjects of the specific block, offering, at the same time, the student a tool for selfassessment with respect to her/his level of understanding and her/his ability to solve problems. The student can apply to all 4 written tests, regardless of the result achieved in each, or any number she/he wishes to. Each in progress test, although limited as to the specific content of the thematic block, simulates the structure of the first written exam and contains 4 problems with open answer questions to be solved in no more than 30 minutes each. Students who have obtained a positive assessment (> 18/30) in 3 out of 4 in progress tests may, if they wish, be exempted from carrying out the first final written exam (P1).
The learning assessment (exam) involves passing two mandatory written tests, the first (P1) which requires solving 4 problems with open answer questions to be carried out in a total of 2 hours, and the second ( P2) consisting in the written description of three themes on topics regarding the entire course and also including simple theoretical demonstrations. The duration of the second written test is a total of 1.5 hours. The student is admitted to the second written test (P2) only after passing the first one (P1). The tests P1 and P2 can be carried out sequentially in the same exam session. The student who, as a result of the inprogress evaluation has been exempted from the final written test P1, can apply to it again, or can access directly to the written test P2.
The tests P1 and P2 are designed to ensure: i) the ability to understand the problems proposed during the course, ii) the ability to correctly apply the theoretical knowledge (descriptor Dublin 2), iii) the ability to independently express judgment and appropriate comments on possible alternative models (descriptor Dublin 3), iv) the ability to communicate effectively in writing (descriptor Dublin 4).
The grade (expressed out of thirty) is a weighted average of the marks obtained in P1 and P2, with weights in the ratio 3/2, and it represents the overall result achieved by the student on the Physics Course.  Extended program
 Units, dimensions, measurements, errors and statistical analysis. Dimensional Analysis  Motion: reference systems, approximations. Motion in one dimension: displacement, velocity, acceleration. Motion with constant velocity. Motion with constant acceleration. Freefall under gravity. Vectors and their components. Adding and multiplying vectors. Motion in two and three dimensions: position, displacement, average velocity, velocity, average acceleration, acceleration. Projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. Forces: motion and equilibrium. Mass. Newton's first, second and third law. Some specific forces: weight, normal component of the reaction, friction, elastic forces. Dynamics of the circular motion. Linear momentum. Work. Calculation of the work in elementary cases. Fields. Conservative fields. Potential energy. Calculation of the potential energy in elementary cases. Spring potential energy. Kinetic energy. Workenergy theorem. Nonconservative fields. The harmonic oscillators. Systems of particles. Center of mass. Newton's second law for a system of particles. Linear momentum of a system of particles. Conservation of linear momentum. Collisions: elastic and inelastic. Torque. Angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum. Dynamics of the rigid bodies. Rotations, rigid translations and rolling. Inertial momentum. HuygensSteiner theorem. Equilibrium of rigid bodies. Static laws. Gravitation: Kepler's laws, Newton's law of gravitation, examples. Gauss' theorem.
Electric charges. Electrical structure of matter, insulating materials and conductors. Coulomb's law. The electrostatic field produced by discrete or continuous distributions of charges. Lines of force of the electrostatic field. Motion of a charge in an electrostatic field. Electrostatic potential. Electrostatic potential energy. Field as the gradient of the potential. Equipotential surfaces. Rotor of the electrostatic field. Electric dipole: force and torque on an electric dipole. Flow of the electrostatic field, Gauss' law and its applications. Divergence of the electrostatic field. Conductors in equilibrium. Electrostatic shield. Capacitors. Connecting capacitors. Energy of the electrostatic field. Electric polarization, dielectric constant and dielectric. General equations of electrostatics in the presence of dielectrics. Electrical conduction. Ohm's law. Classical model of conduction. Resistors in series and in parallel. Electromotive force. Generalized Ohm's law. Charging and discharging of a capacitor. Displacement current. Kirchhoff's laws. Magnetic interaction and magnetic field. Electricity and magnetism. Magnetic force on a moving charge and on a currentcarrying conductor. Mechanical moments on planar circuits. Hall effect. Motion of charged particles in a magnetic field. Magnetic field produced by current carrying circuits. Electrodynamic action between current carrying wires. Ampere's law. Magnetic properties of matter. Magnetization. Gauss' law for the magnetic field. Equations of magnetostatics in the presence of magnetized media. Electromagnetic induction, induced emf, Faraday's law and its applications. Selfinduction and mutual induction. MaxwellAmpere's Law. Maxwell's equations in differential form.