Mechanical engineering
Study-unit Code
Lorenzo Tiacci
  • Lorenzo Tiacci
  • 72 ore - Lorenzo Tiacci
Course Regulation
Coorte 2020
Learning activities
Ingegneria gestionale
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Introduction to production systems
Basic concepts for the management of production systems
Managing items with stationary and independent demand
Managing items with dependent demand
Just-in-time, Lean Production and Six Sigma.
Reference texts
Tiacci, L., "Gestione delle Scorte - Modelli matematici e loro applicazione - 2A EDIZIONE", Lulu, 2021. (acquistabile al link: http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/LorenzoTiacci)
Sianesi, A., "La Gestione del Sistema di Produzione", ETAS, 2011.
Nahmias, S., "Production and Operations Analysis" - Sixth Ed. - McGrawHill, 2013
Silver, E.A., Pyke, D.F., Thoms, D.J., "Inventory and Production Management in Supply Chains" - Fourth Ed. - CRC Press 2017.
Silver, E.A., Pyke, D.F., Peterson, R., "Inventory Management and Production Planning and Scheduling" - Third Ed. - WILEY 1998.
Schiraldi, M., "La gestione delle scorte", Esselibri, 2007.
Chopra, S. , Meindl, P., "Supply Chain Management", Pearson, 2007.
Educational objectives
The course objective is to provide basic knowledge for the management of a production system as a whole, in order to optimize its performance in terms of cost reduction and service level fulfillment.

The main knowledge gained will be:

definitions and classifications of production processes and production systems
knowledge related to productivity and efficiency measures
theoretical knowledge on materials management, such as inventory control policies for items with independent demand
theoretical knowledge related to material with dependent demand, such as heuristic for lot sizing, forecasting, and basic concepts of Material Requirement Planning
Basic knowledge of Just in Time and Lean Production
The main skills are:
application of forecasting techniques on historical data for the calculation of future requirements
Ability of develop the Sales and Operations Plan (S & OP)
Ability to develop Master Production Schedule (MPS)
Ability to optimize order quantities and reorder points
Ability to optimize the time interval between orders and the order-up-to levels
In order to understand and to apply most of the techniques described in the course it is essential the knowledge of the following topics:
- Integral, indefinite integrals, multi-variable functions, maximum and minimum bounded
- Probability density functions, basic concepts of statistics.
It is also important to have succesfully taken an exam about Facilities Planning.
Teaching methods
The course is organized as follows:
- Theoretical lessons on all topics of the program
- Classroom exercises consisiting in solving practical problems
The exercises are held during class time, and immediately follow the theoretical lesson to which they refer
Other information
Attendance is not comulsory but strongly adviced.
Learning verification modality
The exam consists of a written exam and an oral exam.
The written exam consists in an exercise in which the student has to solve a problem related to subject as demand forecasting, inventory control, MRP. The exercise aim is to determine the ability to correctly apply the theoretical knowledge, the understanding of the issues proposed, and the concentration ability needed to perform correctly the calculation needed to solve the problem. The test duration is approximately 1h 30m
The oral exam consists of 3 questions designed to ascertain the level of knowledge and understanding of the issues on theoretical and methodological aspects of the program. The duration of the test is about 30 min.
Extended program
Introduction to production systems
Definition of production system and production process
The classification of manufacturing processes and production systems
Classification of "products"
Classified according to the management methods
Push and pull approaches (par. 3.4)
Classification by technological processes
Classification by work organization
Classification by lay out
The hybrid classifications
Basic concepts for the management of production systems
Performance measurement and operational conditions
The measurement of operating conditions
The operating states of a resource
The availability of a productive resource
the production capacity
The measure of internal performances
The OEE measure
Costs for decisions
Production costs
Inventory carrying costs
Setup costs
Stock-out costs of
Managing items with stationary and independent demand
General concepts regarding stocks
Classification of stocks based on the state of transformation
Classification of stocks based on their function
Materials management
The objectives of materials management
The criteria for materials management
Managing items with stationary demands
The objectives, costs, decisions and management models
The EOQ-ROP model
Order quantity with deterministic and constant demand
The economic order quantity (EOQ)
Quantiities discounts
The economic production quantity (EPQ)
Deterministic lead times
Items with probabilistic demand
Policy (s, Q) (order point, order quantity) - Continuous Review
Choice of the safety factor for the determination of safety stocks
Minimization of the total costs as a function of a fixed cost per Stock-out event.
Minimization of the total costs as a function of a cost per stock-out unit.
Decision rule for a given probability not to go to Stock-out during a supply cycle (cycle service level)
Decision rule for a given percentage of demand fulfilled directly from the shelf (fill rate)
Decision rule for a given average time between stock out occasions (TBS = Time Between Stockout Occasion)
The model with fixed reorder interval
Policy (R, S) (review period, order up to level) - Periodic Review
Variability of lead time
Aggregation in the Multi-Item case
Allocation of a total value of safety stocks for minimizing the total expected number of stock-out incidents in a year
Allocation of a total amount of safety stock for the minimization of the expected total value of stock-outs in a year
measuring the efficiency
Managing items with dependent demand
The general framework
From independent to dependent demand items
General concepts related to dependent demand items
Demand forecasting
static method
self-adaptive methods: moving averages, exponential smoothing, Holt and Winters models
error measures
aggregate sales planning and capacity management
Materials Requirements Planning (MRP)
Just-in-time and Lean Production
Introduction to quality management
The Toyota production System
Techniques to accomplish the TPS
The Six Sigma
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