# Unit HYDROLOGY 2

Course
Civil engineering
Study-unit Code
A001080
Curriculum
Strutture
Teacher
Alessia Flammini
Teachers
• Alessia Flammini
Hours
• 48 ore - Alessia Flammini
CFU
5
Course Regulation
Coorte 2021
Offered
2021/22
Learning activities
Affine/integrativa
Area
Attività formative affini o integrative
ICAR/02
Type of study-unit
Opzionale (Optional)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Italian
Contents
The course is organized in different units:
•Rainfall infiltration process
•Effective rainfall-direct runoff transformation
•Flood routing
•Real-time flood forecasting system
Reference texts
•V. T. Chow, D. Maidment, L.W. Mays, Applied Hydrology, Mc Graw-Hill, Book Company, New York, 1988;
•U. Maione, Appunti di Idrologia 3: Le piene fluviali, La Goliardica Pavese, Pavia, 1981;
•Didactic material available in APE-LEARNING or UNISTUDIUM website
Educational objectives
The course examines advanced modeling of the infiltration process of water into the soil, the transformation of effective rainfall in direct runoff and the flood routing directed to hydraulic infrastructures design, to water resources management and to floodscontrol.

The main expected learning results will be:
•knowledge and understanding of the hydrological cycle and key hydrological processes, rigorous or simplified approaches in estimating infiltration rates and soil moisture evolution, lumped or semi-distributed models that describe rainfall-runoff transformation and synthesize storm hydrographs, hydraulic and hydrological methods to route flood waves through river systems, real-time flood forecasting system;
•skill to select and apply proper advanced modeling in order to represent the main components of the hydrological cycle as infiltration process and runoff generation and to simulate flood routing.
Prerequisites
In order to deeply understand mathematical models involved in the program of the course and to reach the expected learning results the following elements are required:
•Mathematical analysis: analytic functions, differential and integral calculus of functions of single and several variables, partial differential equations.
•Physics and Rational Mechanics: vector calculus, cardinal equations of statics and dynamics.
•Hydraulics: elements of Hydrostatics, open channel flow and pressurized flow.
•Structural Mechanics and Strength of Materials: materials mechanical response, continuum mechanics, elements of structural analysis
•Municipal Water Systems: static analysis of underground pipes.
•Hydrology: main components of hydrological cycle (precipitation, runoff, infiltration)and basic hydrological modeling.
Teaching methods
The course is organized in:
•Face-to-face lessons;
•Practical training;
•Seminars.
Other information
The main course Hydrology and Hydraulic Structures is divided into two coordinated modules: i) Hydrology II ii) Hydraulic Structures.
Statistical analysis of exam mark obtained by students
Sample constituted by 477 students.
Average mark: 27.14; standard deviation:2.09.

Percentage of students who obtained an exam mark included in the range
18 - 21 0.42%
22 - 24 13.20 %
25 - 27 38.16 %
28 - 30 45.28 %
30 cum laude 2.94 %

The main course Hydrology and Water Resources Management is divided into two coordinated modules: i) Hydrology II ii) Water Resources Management.
Statistical analysis of exam mark obtained by students
Sample constituted by 123 students.
Average mark: 26.64; standard deviation:1.91.
Percentage of students who obtained an exam mark included in the range
18 - 21 1.63%
22 - 24 11.38 %
25 - 27 53.66 %
28 - 30 32.52 %
30 cum laude 0.81 %
Learning verification modality
HYDROLOGY II
The exam of the course consists of a written test and an oral discussions over the contents of the course, to be performed separately or in the same exam session.

The written exam, lasting 1 hour, consists of the solution of two problems related to the hydrological modeling, the first one of computational type and the second one of both computational and conceptual kind. The test has the aim to prove the ability of understanding the proposed problems and applying theoretical knowledge in order to obtain quantitative results, the skill to elaborate by self-judgment proper remarks, and the capacity to effectively communicate in a written form.

The oral exam, lasting about 45 minutes, is directed to check out the knowledge level over the course contents, the acquired ability to apply the studied models and techniques and the ability to select the proper methodology by self-judgement. Furthermore, the oral exam has also the objective to evaluate communication skills and the usage of an appropriate language about the theoretical and practical subjects of the course.

The grade of the exam is certified with the local grade system, which is a number on a scale from 18 to 30. The exam mark will be provided by a weighted average of the results obtained in the separate tests, with the following weights: written test: 1/3; oral test: 2/3.

HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
The exam of the course consists of a written test and two oral discussions over the contents of the two parts of the course program (Hydrology II and Hydraulic Structures), to be performed separately or in the same exam session.

The written exam, lasting 1 hour, consists of the solution of two problems related to the hydrological modeling, the first one of computational type and the second one of both computational and conceptual kind. The test has the aim to prove the ability of understanding the proposed problems and applying theoretical knowledge in order to obtain quantitative results, the skill to elaborate by self-judgment proper remarks, and the capacity to effectively communicate in a written form.

The two oral exams, each one lasting about 45 minutes, are directed to check out the knowledge level over the course contents divided into two parts (Hydrology II and Hydraulic Structures), the acquired ability to apply the studied models and techniques and the ability to select the proper methodology by self-judgement. Furthermore, the oral exams have also the objective to evaluate communication skills and the usage of an appropriate language about the theoretical and practical subjects of the course.

The grade of the exam is certified with the local grade system, which is a number on a scale from 18 to 30. The exam mark will be provided by a weighted average of the results obtained in the separate tests, with the following weights: written test: 1/6; oral test related to the first part of the course program (Hydrology II): 1/3; oral test related to the second part of the course program (Hydraulic Structures): 1/2.

HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
The exam of the course consists of two written tests to be performed separately and two oral discussions over the contents of the two parts of the course program (Hydrology II and HYPERLINK "http://www.unipg.it/en/courses/bachelor-master-degrees/course-catalogue-2015-16?controller=corso&anno=2015&layout=insegnamento&insegnamento=2136" Water Resources Management), to be performed separately or in the same exam session.
The written exams, each one lasting 1 hour, are related respectively to the hydrological modeling and the water resources management techniques. The tests last 1 hour and consist of the solution of two problems, the first one of computational type and the second one of both computational and conceptual kind. The tests have the aim to prove the ability of understanding the proposed problems and applying theoretical knowledge in order to obtain quantitative results, the skill to elaborate by self-judgment proper remarks, and the capacity to effectively communicate in a written form.
The two oral exams, each one lasting about 45 minutes, are directed to check out the knowledge level over the course contents divided into two parts (Hydrology II and HYPERLINK "http://www.unipg.it/en/courses/bachelor-master-degrees/course-catalogue-2015-16?controller=corso&anno=2015&layout=insegnamento&insegnamento=2136" Water Resources Management), the acquired ability to apply the studied models and techniques and the ability to select the proper methodology by self-judgement. Furthermore, the oral exams have also the objective to evaluate communication skills and the usage of an appropriate language about the theoretical and practical subjects of the course.
The grade of the exam is certified with the local grade system, which is a number on a scale from 18 to 30. The exam mark will be provided by a weighted average of the results obtained in the separate tests, with the following weights: written tests: 1/6 for each one; oral tests: 1/3 for each one.
Extended program
The course deals with advanced models describing the infiltration process of water into the soil, the transformation of effective rainfall in direct runoff and the routing of a hydrograph from an upstream to a downstream river section. The program involves also the description of the real-time flood forecasting system. All these elements are directed to the design of hydraulic infrastructures, to the control of floods and to the management of water resources. The course is organized in different units as follows:
•Rainfall infiltration process: i) Numerical solution of the Richards equation.; ii) Conceptual semi-analytical models for conditions of immediate ponding and their extension for real rainfall patterns (models of Philip and Green-Ampt).
•Effective rainfall-direct runoff transformation: i) Geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph; ii) Semi-distributed approach (Clark model).
•Flood routing: i) The Saint Venant model; ii) Kinematic and diffusive models; iii) The Muskingum method.
•Real-time flood forecasting system.
Condividi su