Biological sciences
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Ferdinando Costantino
  • Ferdinando Costantino
  • 49 ore - Ferdinando Costantino
Course Regulation
Coorte 2022
Learning activities
Discipline chimiche
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Concepts of matter and energy. Units of measure.
the structure of the atom and molecules.
Responsiveness of the elements and periodic table. Chemical nomenclature and chemical reactions.
chemical bond.
The states of matter (liquid, solid, gaseous). The chemical kinetics and the speed of reactions.
The solutions. The chemical balance. The balances of solubility in watery solution and acid-base balances. Electrochemistry and potential redox.
Reference texts
-Nivaldo J. Tro
Chimica Un approccio molecolare.
Edises, II edizione.
--Schiavello, Palmisano.
-Chimica generale
Peter Atkins, Loretta Jones
Zanichelli, 2 edizione
Fondamenti di Chimica
IV Edizione
Educational objectives
The course of chemistry aims to provide, as main training objective,
an appropriate basic knowledge of the following contents:
-Knowing how to balance chemical reactions and adequately use of mole concept.
-Understanding the properties and responsivenes of the elements of the periodic table.
-Having a basic knowledge of the atomic structure, the electronic properties and the main characteristics of the chemical bond.
-Knowing how to do stoichiometric calculations on solutions.
-Knowing how to calculate the pH of acidic and basic solutions.
-Understanding the behaviour of chemical species in oxidation-reduction reactions.
The general chemistry exam is one of the fundamental subjects of the first year of the course of study. The prerequisites for satisfactorily addressing the study of chemistry are:
-An appropriate knowledge of arithmetic, algebraic rules and logarithmic calculations.
-Appropriate knowledge of the use of physical quantities and conversion factors.
-Adequate capacity of analysis and synthesis of the contents provided by the teacher.
-Autonomy in the personal deepening of the formative contents.
Teaching methods
Theoretical frontal lessons with the help of slides and numerical exercises on the blackboard. Small demonstrative experiences to be carried out in the classroom.
Other information
The course is held at Porcellati Room, Via del Giochetto
Learning verification modality
The exam consists in passing two partial tests to be carried out in the middle and end of the course. Subsequently, for those who have passed the two tests with an average of more than 18/30 there is an oral test on three topics of the course. Alternatively it will be possible to carry out n single written test with open answers and numerical exercises in presence and from an oral test for those who pass the exam with a vote of more than 18/30
In case of need due to the pandemic, the exam will take place remotely through the LibreEOL platform. For those who pass this test with a mark equal to or greater than 18/30 there is an oral integration on the Teams platform in order to confirm or improve the grade of the written testn.

For information on support services for students with disabilities and/or DSA visit the page http://www.unipg.it/disabilita-e-dsa
Extended program
Introduction to matter and energy: homogeneous and heterogeneous systems.
Solutions, simple substances and compound substances. Constitution
Of the atom, atomic number, mass number, nuclei, isotopes, elements.
Atomic masses. Atomic weights Scale. Isotopic abundance. Defect in
mass. Average atomic weight. Avogadro's constant and mole concept.
Chemical formulas: Minimal formulas and molecular formulas. Reports of
Combination. Percent composition by weight. Analysis overview
Elementary. Chemical reactions. Balance. Preservation principle
Atoms. Complete reactions and with limiting reagent. Energy, Heat
and work. Isolated, closed and open systems. The electromagnetic spectrum.
Internal energy. The first principle of thermodynamics. Enthalpy and
Standard enthalpy. Warmth and enthalpy. Exothermic and Endotermal processes.
Status functions. Energy of physical water transformations.
Fundamentals on Atomic theory: Atomic spectra. The hydrogen atom
According to Bohr. Quantum mechanics. Wave Nature
of the electron. The wavefunction. The quantum numbers and the spin. Orbitals and
Energy levels. The principle of Aufbau, the Hund rule, the principle of
Pauli exclusion. Electronic structure of the elements. Configurations
Electronic. The periodic table. Periodic properties. Effect of
Shielding and effective nuclear charge. Radius and atomic volume and
Ionic. Ionization energy. Electronic affinity. Valencia
Electronegativity and oxidation number. Simple Methods for
Determine the oxidation number. Average oxidation number.
Basic reactivity of elements. Metallic, Semimetallic and
Non-metallic. Hydrides and oxides. Basic oxides and hydroxides. Acid oxides
(anhydrides), Oxyacids and Oxianions. Nomenclature. Formation of salts. Overview
To the acid and basic behaviour of the substances. Classification of
Chemical reactions. Redox and non-redox reactions. Training reactions,
decomposition, combustion, displacement, exchange. Balance
Of redox reactions with ionic-electronic method in aqueous environment
Acid and Basic. Ionic and molecular reaction. Disproportions.
Molecular structure and chemical bonds: hints on the ionic bond.
Description of the covalent bond with the valence bond method.
Sigma ties and more Greek ties. Octet rule. Simple Bond,
Double and triple. Dative bond. Electron-deficient molecules. expansion
Of the valence sphere and violation of the octet rule. Method
V.S.E.P.R. and molecular geometry. Hybridization. Formulas of structure of
Common molecules and the most common molecular ions. Resonance. Polarity of
Covalent bonds. Dipole moment. Definition and unit of measure.
Covalent polar and homeolar bond. Intermolecular interactions: Ioneione, Ion-dipole (dissociation and solvatation of ionic solids), dipole
Permanent-permanent dipole, permanent dipole-induced dipole, dipole
Instantaneous-induced dipole (Van der Waals forces and dispersal forces of
London). Hydrogen Bridge bond. Molecular examples of binding a
Intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bridge. The bridge link
Hydrogen in the water and its chemical-physical effects. The bridge link
Hydrogen in proteins and nucleic acids.
The states of matter: solids. General information about the types of solids classified
According to the nature of the chemical bond: Metallic Solids (properties
Fundamentals, model of the Sea of electrons), Ionic (property
Fundamental, dissociation, solvatation), covalent (property
Fundamental, dimensionality of covalent solids according to the directions
Propagation in the space of covalent bonds), molecular (properties
Fundamental, intermolecular interactions).
Gases: Nature and pressure definition. Unit of measure. The pressure
Atmospheric. The perfect gas model. Perfect gas energy. Law of
Maxwell-Boltzmann on the distribution of molecular energies. Dependence on the temperature of the energy distribution curves
According to Maxwell-Boltzmann law. Laws of perfect gases.
Perfect gas state equation. Perfect gas blends. Pressure
Partial. Dalton's law. Molar fraction. Partial Volume. Liquids.
Vapor pressure of a liquid. Liquid-vapor equilibrium. Definition of
State of equilibrium. Dependence of the vapour pressure on the
Temperature. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Solid-vapor balance.
Phase balances for systems to a component. Phase diagrams. Point
Triple. Normal melting and boiling temperatures. The diagram of
Phase of water and carbon dioxide. Variance concept.
Perturbations of the equilibrium. Principle of the mobile balance of Le Chatelier. Applications to phase balances.
Solutions. Concentration. Unit of measure:% by weight,% by volume,
Molar fraction, molarity, molality. Ideal solutions. Definition of
Ideal solution. Enthalpy of Intermination. Deviations from ideality.
Dissociation of solutes. Types of solutes: strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes,
Electrolytes. Degree of dissociation. Binomial of Van T'hoff. Property
Colligative: Raoult's Law on the vapour tensions of the solutions; Case of
Two components both volatile and case of two components of which one is
Non-volatile: reduction of the solvent vapour pressure.
Cryoscopic lowering of the melting and raising temperature
Ebullioscopic of the solvent's boiling temperature. Pressure
Osmotic. Operational definition. Semipermeable membranes. Solutions
Isotonic. Osmosis.
Chemical equilibrium. Characteristics of chemical equilibrium. Constant of
Balance and its properties. Prediction of reactivity based on the principle
Of the mobile balance of Le Chatelier. Effects of perturbations
On balance: variation in concentration, pressure, volume and
Temperature. Equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Predictions of
Reactivity. Reversible reactions and spontaneous reactions. Entropy. Definition.
Second principle of thermodynamics. Variation of entropy for the
System and the environment. Criterion of spontaneity and reversibility based
On the variation of entropy. Entropy and order-disorder concept.
Microscopic interpretation of entropy. Boltzmann equation.
Microstate concept. Qualitative evaluation of the variation of
Entropy for some chemical reactions. Third principle of
Thermodynamics and scale of absolute entropies of substances. Energy
Free G. Definition. Criterion of spontaneity and reversibility based on the variation of free energy at constant temperature and pressure. Energies
Standard education free and standard training entalpies. Tables
Thermodynamics and their use. Relationship between standard free energy variation and constant equilibrium. Van T'hoff's equation. Dependence of the equilibrium constant on the temperature.
Chemical Kinetics. Kinetic equation. Constant speed. Order of reactions.
Solubility balances in aqueous solution. Concept of solubility. product
of solubility. Calculation of ionic equilibrium concentrations. Effect of
Salt stoichiometry. Effect of the ion in common.
Acid-base balances. Definition of acid and base according to Lowry-Bronsted.
Acid-base reactions. Ampholytes. Reactions of autoprotolysis. Base acid headstocks. Saline hydrolysis. pH calculation of strong, weak and polyprotic acids. Property of the buffer solutions and mechanism of the effect of
Tamponade. Calculations for the determination of concentrations of
Balance in Buffer solutions
Electrochemical. Galvanic and Electrolyic cells. Daniell stack. Closed and open circuit batteries. First and second species electrodes. Redox potentials. Nenrst equation.
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