Chemical sciences
Study-unit Code
Chimica organica
Oriana Piermatti
  • Oriana Piermatti
  • 42 ore - Oriana Piermatti
Course Regulation
Coorte 2022
Learning activities
Discipline chimiche organiche
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Catalysis and sustainable development. Kinetic aspects of catalysis. Homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes. Metal-free homogeneous catalysis: Brønsted acids and bases, organocatalysis. Homogeneous asymmetric catalysis. Heterogeneous catalysis: catalyst recovery and recycling. Immobilization strategies of homogeneous catalyst. Comparison of the catalytic activity between different supports and comparison with the homogeneous catalyst.
Reference texts
1. Teacher lectures;
2. Catalysis: Concept and Green Applications;
3. Gadi Rothenberg, Wiley WCH, 2008.
4. Recoverable and recyclable catalysts; M. Benaglia, Wiley, 2009.
5. Catalyst Immobilization: Methods and Applications; M. Benaglia, A. Puglisi; Wiley 2020
Educational objectives
The aim of the course is to provide to the students the fundamental concepts of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis applied to organic synthesis and in particular to the asymmetric synthesis.

The main acquired knowledge regarding the use of metal catalysts with chiral ligands, organic catalysts, acid-basic catalysts in the main fundamental organic processes such as the aldol addition reaction, the Mannich reaction, the Michael reaction, the Diels-Alder reaction, epoxidation and reduction reactions.

At the end of the course the student should be able to analyze and rationalize the effect of a catalyst on both the reactivity and regio- and diastereoselectivity of the organic process.
In order to effectively follow the course of Catalysis in Organic Chemistry is necessary to know the contents of Organic Chemistry 1 and Organic Chemistry 2 of the Bachelor of Chemistry.
Teaching methods
The course is organized as follows:
-Lectures on all the subject of the course with examples of recent literature.
-An exercise in which students research an example of the recent literature on metal or organic catalysis in homogeneous or heterogeneous phase and presentation of the article to colleagues of the course.
Other information
Learning verification modality
An oral exam aimed at ascertaining the level of knowledge about the different types of catalysis applied to fundamental processes in organic synthesis. The examination consists of a discussion of about 30-40 minute of 2-3 questions with closed stimulus and open answer.
Extended program
Fundamental aspects of catalysis: replacyng stoichiometric reaction with a catalytic cycle. Sustainable development, environmental impact.
Kinetic aspects of catalysis. The reaction profile and the reaction coordinate: pre-equilibrium, catalyst precursor and active catalyst. Basic concepts in catalysis: catalyst/substrate interaction, the catalyst deactivation, inhibition, and poisoning. Turnover number (TOF) and turnover frequency (TOF).
Homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes. Exchange of ligands, dissociation and coordination.
Metal-free homogeneous catalysis: Brønsted acids and bases, organocatalysis. Noncovalent organocatalysis: hydrogen bond. Covalent organocatalysis: formation of enamines.
Use of water as reaction medium in homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes and organocatalysts.
Homogeneous asymmetric catalysis. Application to the main classes of organic reactions: carbon-carbon bond formation (aldol condensation, Michael, Mannich, Diels-Alder), oxidations and reductions. Advantages and disadvantages of homogeneous catalysis.
Heterogeneous catalysis: catalyst recovery and recycling. The concept of the active site. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model for heterogeneous catalysis. The solid supports: organic, inorganic, hybrid organic-inorganic materials. The choice of support: specific surface area, accessibility of substrate, stability.
Supported chiral catalysts on insoluble matrices. Immobilization strategies of homogeneous catalysts: adsorption, encapsulation, covalent bonding, electrostatic interaction, self-assembly.
Comparison of the catalytic activity for some of the most common chiral ligands: homogeneous vs. heterogeneous catalyst and for the heterogeneous catalysts between the different supports. Metal nanoparticles catalysis.
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