Veterinary medicine
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Oliviero Olivieri
  • Massimo Trabalza Marinucci (Codocenza)
  • 65 ore (Codocenza) - Massimo Trabalza Marinucci
Course Regulation
Coorte 2017
Learning activities
Discipline della zootecnica, allevamento e nutrizione animale
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
The course provides knowledge of the nutritional requirements of animals by species, breed and productivity, the intake capacity and the development of individual and group rations, as well as the basics of feed technology (processing of raw feeds, formulation and production feed, and its use for feeding).
At the end of the course, the students should be able to formulate a composite feed or a daily ration for both livestock species and pet
Reference texts
Textbooks and didactic materials

M. Antongiovanni - Nutrizione e alimenti degli Animali in Produzione
zootecnica, Hoepli, 2005.
Handouts and didactic material provided by the teacher.

Further texts:

D. Cevolani - Alimenti per la Vacca da Latte, Ed agricole, 2005, Bologna.
G. Bittante, I. Andrighetto, M. Ramanzin - Fondamenti di Zootecnica,
Liviana Ed., 1990, Padova.
P. Mc-Donald, R.A. Edwards, J.F.D. Greenhalgh - Nutrizione Animale, 4a
Ed. Tecniche nuove, 1992, Milano.
M. Piccioni - Dizionario degli Alimenti per il Bestiame, 5a Ed. 1989,
Edagricole, Bologna.
Educational objectives
Learning outcomes of the module are closely dependent on those
provided by the module of “Nutrizione ed Alimentazione Animale I” and therefore should be considered a single set.
The knowledge learned
depends also on the knowledge received in previous and related courses (Animal Production, Biochemistry and Physiology of Nutrition) and provides the basis needed to address the course of Animal Dietetics.

The core of the received knowledge is to provide students with the basic
concepts and rules that form the basis of the formulation of a diet and
the correct evaluation of a rationing plan.
In particular, the knowledge you expect the student has acquired at the
end of the course are as follows:
- knowledge of nutritional requirements of the animals (both of
zootechnical interest or pet) by species, breed and type/level of
production; knowledge of the factors that constitute a source of variation
of such requirements; knowledge of the characteristics of feeds (already
studied “Animal Nutrition and Feeding I”) and their methods of use in the
formulation of a diet; knowledge of the processing of raw materials,
additives, formulation systems and of the different treatments applied at
the feed plant (reception, storage, treatment, preparation and storage of the finished product); basic elements of the quality control of feeds; knowledge of the spreadsheet to calculate the ration; basic elements of the software used for rationing.

The skills that the student will have to prove on the basis of the
knowledge acquired are:

a) to evaluate the suitability of different ingredients in relation to their possible use in the diet, considering their percentage of inclusion in the ration and the possible treatments at the level of feed industry;

b) to evaluate a complete diet and its suitability for a particular animal
species, depending on the physiological state and the production level;

c) to use a spreadsheet (or perform a manual calculation) for the
definition of a diet, also in consideration of the costs;

d) to use a commercial software for rationing, at least at a basic level.
Teaching methods
The teaching methods used are those set out below.

Theoretical lessons:
a) theoretical lessons on all topics of the course;

Practical lessons:
b) Exercises in the classroom, either by manual calculation or with the
help of specific software, aimed at formulating rations for farm animals
and pets. During the exercises, the teacher remains available to the
students, divided into working groups of 2-3 people, for clarification
during the calculation of the ration and for the correction of the work
when it is completed. The results are discussed with the entire class. The
exercises are conducted in four rounds (the students are divided into 4 groups, 2 hours per each group), to enable better learning. Students can
also practice personally in the calculation of rations and debate in the classroom with the teacher to evaluate the elaborate.

c) Visits to feed plants, preferentially in groups, to allow the knowledge of
how to handle and store raw materials and to prepare complete and complementary feed. During the visits, the discussion with the staff of
the feed plant is encouraged.

d) Field activities at private farms (dairy cattle - beef cattle - sheep) and at the “Azienda Zootecnica Didattica” of the University (pigs - sheep - cattle).

Slide presentation and/or description of a ration based on on-line research under the guidance of the teacher.
Extended program

1) Introduction (general aspects of rationing). The meaning of nutrient
requirements in monogastric and ruminant animals.

2) Nutrient requirements and feeding of poultry.

3) Nutrient requirements and feeding of pigs.

4) Nutrient requirements and feeding of the horse.

5) Nutrient requirements and feeding of beef cattle.

6) Nutrient requirements and feeding of dairy cattle.

7) Nutrient requirements and feeding of small ruminants.

8) Nutrient requirements and feeding of dogs.

9) Nutrient requirements and feeding of cats.

10) The structure of an animal feed plant. The operations at the feed
mill. Flowchart. Reception, sampling and storage of feeds.

11) Feed technology. The effect of temperature on the characteristics of
feeds. Feed processing.

12) Additives. General introduction. Description of the categories.


1) Broiler and turkey diets: exercise.
2) Laying hen diets: exercise.
3) Pig diets: exercise.
4) Horse diets: exercise.
5) Beef cattle diets: exercise.
6) Dairy cattle diets: exercise.
7) Small ruminant diets: exercise.
8) Dog diets: exercise
9) Cat diets: exercise
10) Slide presentation and/or description of a ration based on on-line research under the guidance of the teacher (self-directed learning).
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