Veterinary medicine
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Elisabetta Chiaradia
Course Regulation
Coorte 2018
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code GP005392
Teacher Luca Avellini
  • Luca Avellini
  • 20 ore - Luca Avellini
Learning activities Base
Area Discipline della struttura, funzione e metabolismo delle molecole di interesse biologico
Academic discipline BIO/10
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Understand how metabolic pathways are linked and regulated by signal transduction.Biochemical specialization of tissues; in particular: breast, liver and rumen.Biochemistry of the digestive processes in mono- and poly-gastric species.
Reference texts Nelson DL, Cox MM - Principi di Biochimica. Zanichelli, Bologna.A.P. Mariani, A. Podestà -Biochimica e Biotecnologia del Rumine - Piccin.
Educational objectives The course has the main objective to provide the basic elements for understand the metabolism of single organs or tissues and the main metabolic differences between animal species. At the end of the course, the student will possess the appropriate know how for understanding the different nutritional needs and for managing diseases in a species-specific manner. Such knowledge and skills will be certified by passing the exam
Prerequisites Students must possess essential knowledge certified by passing exams in the subjects of General Biochemistry.
Teaching methods The course is organized as follow:- Lectures (17 hours) on all subjects of the course- n° 2 practical lesson (overall 3 hours/student) will be done as cooperative learning. Students will be divided into 4 groups (maximum 20 students per group).
Other information On-line availability of the material used by the teacher for lessons.The teacher becomes available (by prior arrangement) even outside of official office hours (Tues. and Thurs. 13-14) for explanations about the topics of the program.
Learning verification modality At the end of the course, students may get one optional, written exemption, lasting one hours, composed of one open-ended question (list of questions is available on Unistudium). Only students who passed the General Biochemistry exam are qualified to sit this test. The positive outcome is valid until winter examination session of the current Academic Year. If the student cannot get exemption, her/his can repeat the written or oral (optionally) exam in one of the dates indicated on the official Timetables of exams. The outcome of the test will be done in thirty and will then mediated with the mark obtained in Molecular Biology.
Extended program Introduction: overview of the topics of General Biochemistry. Metabolic similarities and differences among different tissues. (1.5 hrs).Digestion, absorption and transport of carbohydrates and lipids in monogastric species. Lipoproteins: biosynthesis and role; cholesterol biosynthesis. (2.5 hrs).Digestion, absorption of protein and overview on metabolic fate of aminoacids. Biogenic amines. (2 hrs)Introduction to Rumen metabolism. Structure and function of plant carbohydrate; cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins. Hydrolitic step. Oxidative step of ruminant carbohydrate digestion carbohydrates: anaerobic glycolysis, the pentose phosphate phosphoketolase and Entner Doudoroff pathways. Reductive step of ruminant carbohydrate digestion carbohydrates: propionate. butyrate and acetate Conversion of pyruvate to lactate, formic acid, H2, Methanogenesis. (6 hrs).Rumen biohydrogenation (1 hrs) -The isomers of conjugated of Linoleic acid (CLA). (1 hr)Rumen metabolism of proteic and non-protein nitrogen- Nitrogen excretion, uric acid synthesis (2 hrs)Mammary Gland: Biosynthesis of lactose and the role of alpha-lactoalbumin (1 hr).Liver detoxification and oxidative stress. (1 hr).


Code GP005393
Teacher Elisabetta Chiaradia
  • Elisabetta Chiaradia
  • 30 ore - Elisabetta Chiaradia
Learning activities Base
Area Discipline della struttura, funzione e metabolismo delle molecole di interesse biologico
Academic discipline BIO/11
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Introduction, Nucleic Acid Structure, Replication of DNA, DNA repair systems, Transcription,
Protein Synthesis, Regulation of gene expression, Nucleic acid extraction, DNA, Recombinant DNA, PCR, Fingerprinting, Microarrays Outline of proteomic methodologies
Reference texts Dai geni ai genomi. Dale - von Schantz.
EdiSES Edizioni Scientifiche ed Universitarie
Edizione: II / 2008


David L Nelson, Michael M Cox
I principi di biochimica di Lehninger
Quinta edizione-2010

James D Watson, Tania A Baker, Stephen P Bell, Alexander Gann, Michael Levine, Richard Losick
Biologia molecolare del gene
Sesta edizione- 2009
Educational objectives The main aim of this teaching is to provide students knowledge on function and chemical -physical properties of nucleic acid, details of DNA replication, transcription, translation, DNA repair systems and gene expression regulation as well as knowledge of some methods and basic experimental techniques of recombinant DNA as well as gene and protein expression
Teaching methods The course is organized as follows:

-Lecture on all subjects of the course;

-Laboratory experiences - Students will be divided into four groups (maximum 20 students)
Extended program Introduction - DNA discovery, Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics. (1 hrs)
Structure of Nucleic Acids- Structure of nucleotides, common and less common bases, tautomeric forms, non-enzymatic modification of nucleotides. Structure of DNA. Supercoiling of DNA, nucleosome, the role of histones, heterochromatin and euchromatin. Denaturation and renaturation of the DNA, hyperchromic effect, Tm. Structures and roles of RNA: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA miRNA, siRNA. The genome and the non-coding sequences. (2 hrs)
Replication of DNA: the chemical synthesis of DNA, proteins involved in the initiation phase and progression of duplication. DNA polymerases. DNA ligase. The reverse transcriptase.
DNA repair systems. (2 hrs)
Transcription:. RNA polymerase of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Starting elongation, and termination of transcription. (2 hrs)
The post-transcriptional RNA modification: capping, poly adenilation . Splicing: the chemistry of splicing, snRPN, splicesoma. Alternative splicing. Editing. Maturation of tRNA. (2 ore)
The Ribo-enzyme
Protein Synthesis - The genetic code: tRNA: three-dimensional structure. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and activation of amino acids, codon-anticodon interactions. Ribosomes: composition, structure. Translation. Post-translational modifications.( 2 hrs)
gene expression regulation (2 hrs)
Nucleic acid extraction - choice of protocol, main components of extraction buffer for RNA and DNA. extraction of genomic DNA, plasmid DNA and mRMA. Using the kit. (2 hrs)
Electrophoresys and nucleic acid analysis, quantitative spectrophotometric measurement (1 ora).
PCR: principles and methodology- thermostable DNA polymerase and primers. Primer design . RT-PCR one-and two-step, quantitative PCR: use of fluorescent probes, examples of possible applications in veterinary medicine. (2 hrs)
DNA sequencing - the theoretical principles of Sanger sequencing, NGS and nanopore. Description of the methodology. Automatization.
Fingerprinting - principles, description of methodology, use of probes. (2 hrs)
Microarrays: principles, description of methodology, examples ( 30 mins).
Cloning: a brief outline (1 hrs)
Outline of proteomic methodologies - two-dimensional electrophoresis (2.5 hrs)

Practical training - DNA extraction from lymphocytes, electrophoresis and quantitative evaluation of the extract. Design of a primer and use databases ( 4 ore)
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