Veterinary medicine
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Maria Teresa Mandara
  • Maria Teresa Mandara
  • 65 ore - Maria Teresa Mandara
Course Regulation
Coorte 2019
Learning activities
Discipline anatomo-patologiche ed ispettive veterinarie
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Urinary System. In the first part physiopathology considerations associated to morphological changes of renal parenchyma and lower urinary tract are treated. Then anomalies of development, regressive changes, inflammatory lesions and neoplasia of kidney and lower urinary tract are extensively discussed. Urolithiasis and hydronephrosis are also treated.

Hematopoietic System (IS). In the first a brief anatomical distribution of IS and turnover mechanisms of hematopoietic cells will be reviewed. After that, involution/regressive and reactive processes of the bone marrow and thymus will be treated.
Then the course will progress to the description of macroscopic pattern of regressive processes, vascular disorders, reactive hyperplasia, and inflammatory diseases of spleen and lymph nodes. When appropriate, inflammatory lesions of hematopoietic tissues will be included and discussed within systemic or multiorganic diseases. A session apart will be dedicated to neoplasia of hematopoietic tissues.
Central and Peripheral Nervous System (CNS - PNS). In the first part, basic lesions and histological patterns of the nervous tissue lesions will be treated. The criteria for CNS and PNS gross diagnosis will be made from them. In the second part of the course, we will proceed to illustrate histological and distribution patterns of lesions applied to different classes of neurological diseases, specifically referred to species: vascular, infectious/infective, traumatic, toxic-metabolic, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Muscle System (MS). Basic lesions referred to skeletal muscle will be treated. The criteria for gross anatomy diagnosis will be made from them and applied to the different classes of domestic animal myopathies. Then, lesions and their physiopathological implications will be discussed for infectious/inflammatory myopathies, metabolic/endocrine primary or secondary myopathies, hereditary myodystrophies, and neuromuscular transmission disorders.
Endocrine System (ES). The most common gross anatomy patterns for hypophysis, adrenal glands, chemoreceptor organs, thyroid and parathyroids, and endocrine pancreas occurring in development disorders, regressive and progressive processes, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases will be treated in domestic animals. A wide physiopathology discussion will be related with morphological disorders of endocrine glands.
Reference texts
- PS Marcato. Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria. Edagricole, Milano, 2008
- MD McGavin and JF Zachary. Patologia veterinaria sistematica. Ed. Italiana, Elsevier, Milano, 2007
Altri testi consigliati:
- MD McGavin and JF Zachary. Pathological basis of Veterinary Disease. IVth Ed. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, 2007
- MT Mandara et al. Atlante di Neuropatologia e Neuroimaging. Poletto ed., Milano, 2011.
Educational objectives
The course gives information necessary for a morphological and pathogenetic study of lesions. Moreover, it gives a diagnostic algorithm aimed to identify the cause/effect relationship, including physic and biological etiology agents, referred to different organs and systems. Finally, based on physiopathologic considerations, the course indicates prognostic evaluations referred to the pathological patterns.
The course is compliant with the teaching aims (SUA A4.a) and employment outlets (SUA A2.a) of the Degree Course referred to physiopathology, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of the main diseases of domestic animals, alone or in group.

The Student must acquire information about etiopathogenetic mechanisms, gross and histological lesions, physiopathological consideration of the main domestic animal diseases of Urinary, hematopoietic, Nervous, and Muscular systems.
The Student must be able:
- to apply appropriate necropsy technique and methods in examining organs from clinical case to the anatomohistopathological diagnosis
-to apply the appropriate technique to cytological and histological exams
-to apply the right method in describing gross and histological lesions referred to etiopathogenesis, and in defining morphological diagnosis of I level
The Student must be able:
-to define a list of differential diagnoses consistent with gross and histological lesions
-to arrange a diagnostic itinerary supported by additional diagnostic investigations to gain final diagnosis
The Student must be able:
-to apply the right terminology in describing lesions and report morphological diagnosis, in compiling anamnestic sheet related to the samples addressed to additional investigations, and in communicating knowledges in a peer auditorium.
The Student must be able:
-to consult and critically examine the literature in order to analyze more in deep subjects and propose strategies in solving problems.
Teaching methods
Il corso è organizzato nel seguente modo:
- lezioni frontali in aula (45h) su tutti gli argomenti del corso
- esercitazioni Pratiche Comuni (11h) eseguite in sala anatomica (max 15 studenti suddivisi in gruppi da 4 studenti) alternate ad esercitazioni su quadri anatomopatologici illustrati mediante diapositive, attraverso discussione interattiva
- Clinical Rotation (9h) presso il Servizio di Patologia Veterinaria. Durante la Clinical Rotation lo studente sarà impegnato nell’esecuzione di necroscopie, compilazione del foglio di lavoro e diagnosi morfologica, trimming dei campioni anatomici, esecuzione di colorazioni istologiche e lettura di preparati istologici/citologici, a seconda delle attività di servizio.
Le attività pratiche svolte in Sala Settoria e nei laboratori del Servizio di Patologia Veterinaria sono regolate da procedure disponibili presso la pagina UniStudium del corso in questione. Il calendario delle attività teoriche e pratiche è disponibile sul sito web del dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria nella sezione Didattica.
Extended program
Urinary System
1. Anomalies of development and familial nephropathies (1.5h).
2. Renal regressive processes: bilateral cortical necrosis; papillary necrosis; renal infarction; glomerulonephrosis (lipidosis, diabetes, amyloidosis); ischemic, toxic, pigmentary tubulonephrosis; nephrotoxicosis; storage tubulonephrosis; hydronephrosis (1.5).
3. Inflammatory diseases. Glomerulonephrites, tubulointerstitial nephrites (TIN)(2h), suppurative nephrites; pyelonephritis; granulomatous and parasitic nephrites (1.5).
4. Extrarenal lesions of renal failure and nephrosic syndrome (1h).
5. Lesions of urinary bladder and lower urinary tract: anomalies of development; urolithiasis; acute and chronic cystitis; feline lower urinary tract disease (LUTD = Lower Urinary Tract Disease); Swine Uro-Genital Disease (SUGD)(1h).
6. Urinary System Neoplasia; Enzootic hematuria and bovine urinary bladder tumours (1h).

Immunohemopoietic System
1. Thymus: involution/atrophy/regressive processes, vascular changes, development diseases, hyperplastic reaction (Thymites)(2h).
2. Blood marrow: Hypoplasia/regressive and reactive changes. Blood marrow examination. Acquired changes: involution, atrophy/aplasia, efficient/non efficient hyperplasia, myelodisplasia/myelofibrosis, necrosis. Gross pathology of acute and chronic anemia (2h).
3. Lymph nodes: Reactive hyperplasia and lymphadenites. Small and large lymph nodes. Circulatory disturbances, lymph node emphysema, degenerative changes, phatological pigmentations, necrosis. lymph node hyperplasia: The FIV (2h). Classification and morphological patterns of lymphadenites: - Equine strangles; - Jowl abscess - Anthrax - Classical and african swine fever - lymph node tuberculosis - The Pseudotuberculosis, Tularemia, Actigranulomatoses, Rodhococcosis, Glanders, PWMWS, mycotic and parasite lymphadenites (2h)
4. Spleen: Regressive changes and splenites. Circulatory disturbances, development anormalities. Degenerative changes and pathological pigmentations. Spleen necrosis. Classification and morphological patterns of splenites: - Anthrax - Swine erysipelas - Equine Infectious Anemia - Necrobacillosis - Feline Infectious Peritonitis (2h). Diagnostic algorithm of splenomegaly (1h)
5. Hematopoietic Neoplasia. Classification. The Lymphoma: anatomic forms and species differences. Tumors of plasmacells; the thymoma; Mastocytosis and malignant Histiocytosis; Fibrohistiocytic nodules in canine speen (1h).
Central Nervous System
Basic lesions and histological patterns of the neurological diseases (1h).
Vascular diseases: - Stroke and global cortical ischemia; - Feline ischemic encephalopathy; - Fibrocartilagineous embolism and hemorrhagic progressive myelomalacia; - Post-anesthetic hemorrhagic poliomyelomalacia; - Neonatal maladjustment syndrome in foals; - Spontaneous hemorrhages (2h)
Inflammatory diseases: Histological patterns and etiology. Direct and indirect effets of infections. Viral diseases: morphological patterns. Non suppurative inflammatory diseases in dogs: Rabies - Aujeszky's disesase; - Canine Herpes Virus, CAV-1 and parvovirus: - Distemper; - Tick-borne encephalites. Non suppurative encephalites of unknown etiology (GME, NME, NLE); - Periventricular encephalitis and eosinophilic encephalitis; - Steroid-responsive meningoarteritis (2h); - Non suppurative inflammatory diseases of cats: - Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP); - Panleucopenia; - FIV infection; - Feline Leucemia Virus infection; - Borna disease. Non suppurative inflammatory diseases of horses: - Herpetic Encephalomyelitis; - Borna disease; - Equine Infectious Anemia; - Arbovirus Encephalites. Non suppurative inflammatory diseases of ruminants: - Visna; - Caprine arthritis encephalitis siyndrom; - Sporadic bovine meningoencephalomyelitis; - Herpetic meningoencephalomyelites; - Louping ill; - Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. Non suppurative inflammatory diseases of pigs: - Aujeszky'disease; - Suine Polioencephalomyelitis; - Encephalomyocarditis; - Vescicular disease; Post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (2h). Bacteric Inflammatory diseases: morphological patterns and etiology; - Thromboembolic meningoencephalitis; - Listeriosis; - Streptococcus meningoependymochoroiditis. Granulomatous diseases. Parasitic and mycotic diseases (2h).
Trauma: Classification and etiology. Cranial trauma, Spinal trauma, Peripheral nerve trauma: pathogenesis and physiopathology(2h).
Malformations: Cerebral disrhaphic defects; Spinal cord disrhaphyc defects; Dysontogenetic and Encephaloclastic defects; Cerebellar malformations; Hydrocephalus (2h).
Toxic and Metabolic diseases. Metabolic diseases: - Hepatic Encephalopathy; - Renal Encephalopathy; - Hypoglicemia; Lysosomal Storage diseases; - Maple syrup urine disease. Toxic diseases: - Equine toxic encephalomyelomalacia; - Equine nigropalidal encephalomalacia; - Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia; - Lead and mercury, ethylene glycol poisoning; - Edema disease. Nutritional diseases: - Cerebrocortical Necrosis; -Swayback and enzootic ataxia; - Salt poisoning; - Focal symmetrical polyoencephalomalacia in pigs; - Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (EDM); - Equine Lower Motoneuron Disease (EMND); - Thiamine deficiency in carnivores; - Ammon's Horn necrosis in cats (2h).
Neoplasms of Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Classification and morphological patterns of primary tumors (1h)
Degenerative Diseases: Classification. Neuonal degeneration: - Lower motoneuron diseases; - Cerebellar cortex degenerations; - Multisytem Neuronal abiotrophies; - dysautonomia. Axonopathies. - Degenerative myelopathies; - Neuroaxonal dystrophies; - Weaver syndrome. The myelin disorders; - Leucodystrophies; - Spongiform encephalopathies (1h).
Skeletal Muscle System
Basic lesions of skeletal muscle. Atrophies and hypertrophies. Necrosis and regeneration.
Inflammatory myopathies: Classification and etiology. - Pigeon fever and purulent myosites; - Equine streptococcical myosites; - Actinobacillosis; - Malignant edema; Syntomatic Anthrax; - Botulism. Viral Myosites. Parasitic myosites: - Eosinophylic myositis; - Sarcosporidiosis; - Trichinellosis; - Cysticercosis; - Neospora and Toxoplasma infections; Leishmaniosis.
Immunomediated myopathies: - Masticatory Muscle Myositis (MMM); - Polimyositis; - Extraocular muscle myositis; - Dermatomyositis; - Immunomediated myositis in horses; - Roeckl granuloma.
Paraneoplastic and drug-induced myosites (2,5h).
Non inflammatory myopathies. Endocrine myopathies. Nutritional and metabolic myopathies: Ischemic myopathies; White muscle disease; - Equine Polisaccaride Myopathy Storage (EPMS); - exercise rhabdomyolysis. Toxic and electrolyte myopathies: ionophore myopathies; - phytotoxin myopathies; - electrolyte imbalance myopathies. Congenital hereditary myopathies. Neoplastic myopathies (2,5h).
Endocrine System
Hypophysis: Development disorders; Circulatory disturbances and regressive changes; Inflammatory processes and neoplasms. Anatomopathological changes addressed to hypo- and hyperactivity of Hypophysis, Adrenal Gland (2h), Thyroid, Parathyroid, Endocrine pancreas (2h).
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