Veterinary medicine
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Patrizia Casagrande Proietti
  • Patrizia Casagrande Proietti
  • 65 ore - Patrizia Casagrande Proietti
Course Regulation
Coorte 2021
Learning activities
Discipline delle malattie infettive ed infestive
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Morphology,structure and function of bacterial cells.Cultivation and replication of bacteria.Bacterial colonization, tissue invasion.Classification of bacteria.Morphology of viruses.Replication of viruses.Classification of viruses.Innate and acquired immunity.Humoral immunity.Cell-mediated immunity.Passive immunity. Vaccines.
Reference texts
Textbook: Poli G., Dall'Ara P., Martino P.A., Rosati S. Microbiologia e immunologia veterinaria. Edra S.p.A, 2017;
Recommended book: Tizard I.R. Veterinary Immunology. Ten Edition, Saunders Elsevier 2018.
Educational objectives
The aim of the course is to provide the student the necessary knowledge for a global approach to Microbiology with particular reference to bacteria and viruses of veterinary medical interest and to make known how the microorganisms are able to induce infection and disease in animals. Furthermore, the student will be able to acquire the elements suitable for understanding the defense mechanisms of animals as well as the methodologies for diagnosing infectious diseases. The acquired knowledge will be indispensable for t the veterinary profession, especially as regards the ability to critically detect and evaluate the state of health, disease and well-being of the individual and farmed animal, including anthropozoonotic aspects.

Knowledge and understanding: The student will have to demonstrate knowledge of the basics of microbiology and the characteristics of classical and unconventional microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, prions); they will also have to demonstrate knowledge of how the immune system works.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding: The student will have to demonstrate knowledge of microorganisms in order to fight them (pathogenic microorganisms) or to use their potential (useful microorganisms); in addition, you will have to know how to apply the acquired knowledge of immunology, both in animals and in immunodiagnostics.
Critical and judgment skills: The student must be able to collect and interpret data relating to the subject taught in an autonomous and critical manner. This autonomy of judgment can also be demonstrated through the comparison and collegial discussion of the issues dealt with.
In order to understand subject matter teaching is indispensable to pass the exams of Biochemistry.
Teaching methods
Theoretical activity: in the classroom lectures on all subjects of the program; Practical activity: in the laboratory of Microbiology, in this case, students will be divided into groups. The topics will cover cultivation and isolation of microorganisms, their identification and use of serological tests in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.Self-direct learning: Preparing a presentation on a bacteria species or a viral family based on online research and led by the teacher.
Other information
Frequency: Compulsory (70%)Site: Department, via S. Costanzo 4, Perugia. The educational activities will be carried out as reported on the website http://www.medvet.unipg.it/Date di inizio e termine delle attività didattiche: Beginning and end as reported on the website of the Department of Veterinary Medicine: http://www.medvet.unipg.it Calendar of didactic activities:Lectures and Practical lessons according to the timetable available at http://www.medvet.unipg.it/Attività di didattica integrativa: It is scheduled tutoring activities by arrangement with the teacher Learning verification modality
Learning verification modality
The MICROBIOLOGY AND VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY exam consists of the following tests:

1) WRITTEN TEST: Trial test carried out at each appeal before the oral test.
Duration: 60 minutes
Type of test: written with a closed answer.
Purpose: extensive evaluation of learning.
Description - The written test consists of 40 separate questions in questions with answers to a choice between 4 possible, of which only one is the correct one. The questions cover the entire program (Bacteriology, Virology, Immunity, Bacteriology and Special Virology).
The correct answers are assigned half a point. No wrong points or no penalties are assigned to wrong answers or not given.
Test measurement: the test allows a maximum of 20 points to be obtained and is considered passed if the score obtained is equal to or greater than 12.

2) ORAL TEST: final test.
Duration: 40-60 minutes.
Description: open stimulus interview with open answer.
4 questions related to the entire program will be proposed (Bacteriology, Virology, Immunity, Bacteriology and Special Virology)

Measurement: the test is evaluated based on the following parameters:
Argumentative rigor score from Completeness from Language properties from Depth of analysis and connection capacity - From Each score corresponds to the following class of judgment:
from 12 to 14 = sufficient (Some shortcomings, inconsistencies and errors in the argument; logical articulation of the discourse, but excessively simple and essential exposure; autonomous construction of the discourse with a very summary summary of the contents; adequate but stunted application of constraints and logical connections )
from 15 to 17 = good (Rare shortcomings, inconsistencies and errors in the argument; logical articulation of the argumentative path, autonomous construction of discourse with appropriate use of specific language; complete application of constraints and logical connections)
from 18 to 20 = excellent (Absence of deficiencies, inconsistencies and errors in the argument; logical, clear and rich articulation of the argumentative path; autonomous construction of the speech with appropriate and complete use of the specific language; complete application of the constraints and logical connections also with original choices)

The test is passed if the score obtained is equal to or greater than 48 points.

The achievement of the maximum score in all the tests will entail the attribution of the honors if the oral test proves “absolute argumentative, logical and linguistic mastery; autonomous, secure, rich and articulated construction of the discourse, supported by a significant original contribution deriving from the use of multiple study sources "

The examination in its entirety is passed if the overall score is equal to or greater than 60/100 (equal to 18/30).
For information on support services for students with disabilities and / or DSA visit the page http://www.unipg.it/disabilita-e-dsa
Extended program
Introduction to the study of microbiology (1 hour).Structure and function of the bacterial cell surface structures, appendages bacterial intracytoplasmic structures, bacterial spore (2 hours). Reproduction of bacteria, environmental and nutritional factors that affect bacterial growth (2 hours). Genetics of bacteria: mutations, genetic recombination (transformation, transduction, phage conversion, conjugation) (2 hours). Bacteria-interactions ospite.Proprietà pathogenic germs: factors of colonization, diffusion factors, factors that interfere with phagocytosis, toxic factors (3 hours).Physical and chemical agents in the control of microorganisms. Antimicrobial agents (1 hour). Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial diseases (2 hours). Classification of bacteria: classification criteria (1 hour). Bacteriology special kinds: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia, Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Brucella, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Leptospira, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Rickettsia (3 hours).Morphology and structure of virus (2 hours).Bacteriophages (1 hour). Virus-host relationships: how to transmit viruses, routes of entry and spread, types of viral infection 2 hours). Stages of the viral infection (2 hours). Defense mechanisms of cells: viral interference (1 hour). Laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases (1 hour). Classification of viruses: classification criteria (1 hour). Virology special families: Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, Asfarviridae, Poxviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, Reoviridae, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Coronaviridae, Arteriviridae, Retroviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae (3 hours).Antigens and immunogenicity: antigens of microorganisms and animal cells (2 hours).Non-specific innate defense systems: physical and chemical barriers, cellular mechanisms, humoral factors (2 hours). Defensive systems acquired and specific. Immune cells: B cells, T cells, dendritic cells (2 hours).Processing and presentation of antigen. Major histocompatibility complex (1 hour). Antibodies: structure and biological characteristics (1 hour). Effector mechanisms of humoral immunity: thymus-dependent antigens and thymus-independent antigens (1 hour). Mucosal immunity or local. Passive immunity (1 hour). Serological diagnosis (1 hour). Effector mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity (1 hour). Vaccination. Types of vaccines: inactivated, live attenuated, purified composed of subunits, synthetic products with recombinant DNA technology. Adjuvants. Routes of administration of the vaccines (3 hours).
PRACTICAL LESSONS1) Preparation of bacterial culture medium (2 hours)2) Seeding of sample plates and incubation (2 hours)3) Smears from bacterial colonies, Gram staining, observation prepared by optical microscope (3 hours)4) Biochemical tests (2 hours)5) Execution and evaluation of antibiogram result (2 hours)6) Cell cultures (2 hours)7) Observation by light microscopy and evaluation cytopathic effect (2 hours)8) Virus neutralization test on cell culture (3 hours).
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