Unit ADE - Diagnostic cytology and histology in veterinary dermatology

Veterinary medicine
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Chiara Brachelente
  • Chiara Brachelente
  • 25 ore - Chiara Brachelente
Course Regulation
Coorte 2018
Learning activities
A scelta dello studente
A scelta dello studente
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Opzionale (Optional)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Being a practical course, the teaching is characterized by the observation of skin lesions and the recognition of histopathological and cytological alterations. Features regarding the etiopathogenesis, dermatological condition, dermatopathology and cutaneous cytology are defined for each disease. Part of the course involves the optimization of biopsy and cytology technique, especially for inflammatory disease.
Reference texts
Canine and Feline Skin Cytology: A Comprehensive and Illustrated Guide to the Interpretation of Skin Lesions via Cytological Examination – Albanese F, Springer International Publishing, 2017
Cowell-Tyler-Meinkoth-Denicola: Citologia ed ematologia del cane e del gatto.3° ed. italiana, Elsevier-Masson, 2009
Abramo-Albanese-Masserdotti: Malattie Dermatologiche. Guida alla diagnosi clinica, citopatologica e istopatologica-UTET, 2009
Educational objectives
The course presents a learning process that enables the students to understand a teaching model called POA "Problem-oriented approach" in which lesions observed are not only the description of dermatopathological findings but are processed through pathophysiological considerations of the disease.

D1. Knowledge and understanding.
At the end of the course, the student must have acquired:
- knowledge of macroscopic lesions of the main dermatological diseases of domestic animals
- knowledge of the cytological morphological aspects of the main dermatological diseases of domestic animals
- knowledge of the histological morphological aspects of the main dermatological diseases of domestic animals.

D2. Ability to apply knowledge and understanding
At the end of the training the student will be able to:
- formulate diagnostic algorithms and macroscopic and cytopathological differential diagnoses in dermatology;
- choose the type of sampling and the most suitable sampling site for the dermatological investigations;
- interprete a cytological and / or histopathological report
- to correlate the information obtained from the cytological and / or histological report to the prevailing macroscopic picture.

D3. Making judgement
At the end of the training the student must be able to recognize the main dermatological conditions, formulate differential diagnoses for each of them and apply the most basic dermatological diagnostic techniques. In addition, the student must be able to study independently what he/she has learned, for continuous professional development.

D4. Communication skills
At the end of the training activity, the student will be able to convey the acquired knowledge to his interlocutors, in a clear and complete way, using an appropriate and correct language.

D5. Lifelong learning skills
At the end of the training activity, the student will progressively become independent from the teacher, acquiring the ability to refine and deepen their knowledge in an autonomous and original way, identifying the most up-to-date and suitable bibliographic sources and knowing how to read and understand them in a critical manner.
Although there are no compulsory propedeuticities according to regulation, it is strongly advised that the student attending the course has already sat the examinations of veterinary pathology and special pathology and veterinary medical pathology
Teaching methods
The course is divided into 3 main progressive sub-topics represented by the macroscopic examination, the cytological examination, and the histological examination. For each of these main sub-topics, there will be an introductory seminar part, followed by practical exercises and observation of macroscopic images, cytological slides and histological slides. The students will be personally responsible for the execution of the dermatological diagnostic methods and the preparation of the cytological smears and imprints from material of animal origin or from cadavers. At the 10-headed microscope, the group of students will observe the cytological and histological preparations and, based on the reading keys provided during the seminar part, will write a cytological and/or a histological report.
Other information

Learning verification modality
Since no final exam is planned, the acquisition of the knowledge and skills of the course by the students of the CIP will be evaluated through the provision of practical cases that will have to be worked out by the students according to a process that mimics the actual diagnostic path. For each practical case, students will have to demonstrate their ability to recognize the predominant pattern of macroscopic lesions and to give the correct diagnostic algorithm and the respective differential diagnoses. They will also need to identify the most relevant cytological and histological examinations and choose which exam to use for more information. Where the test chosen is the most appropriate, they will receive the additional information that the test / examination could provide; students will have to be able to read and interprete the cytological / histological report. In this way, they will demonstrate that they are able to proceed along the diagnostic path until the final diagnosis is reached.

For information on support services for students with disabilities and / or DSA visit http://www.unipg.it/disabilita-e-dsa
Extended program
The course is organized as follows:
- First day (5 h): definition, through projected images, of the primary and secondary macroscopic skin lesions; recognition of the main dermatological patterns; formulation of the main macroscopic differential diagnoses; identification of collateral tests and of the appropriate diagnostic algorithm; practical exercise in the necrospy hall on dead animals on the various diagnostic techniques, such as biopsy and scalpel biopsy, cytological sampling techniques, as well as the use of pre-printed modules for the collection of anamnestic data.
- Second day (5h): definition, through projected images, of the main cytological pictures of skin lesions; distinction between neoplastic and non-neoplastic findings; identification of the main cytological pattern and formulation of differential diagnoses for each reaction pattern.
- Third Day (5h): definition, through projected images, of the principal patterns of histopathological reaction of skin lesions (pattern analysis of skin diseases); identification of the main histopathological pattern and formulation of differential diagnoses for each reaction pattern.
- Fourth day (5h): observation at the multiheaded microscope of cytological and histopathological samples of dermatological diseases of domestic animals. Report writing.
- Fifth day (5 h): discussion of complete clinical cases with the definition of the main dermatological findings and of the correct diagnosis based on the information derived from the cytological and histopathological examination.
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