Industrial pharmacy
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Antimo Gioiello
  • Antimo Gioiello
  • Andrea Carotti (Codocenza)
  • 40 ore - Antimo Gioiello
  • 15 ore (Codocenza) - Andrea Carotti
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Learning activities
Discipline farmaceutico-alimentari
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Provide a broad knowledge on the process of early drug discovery with insights on key steps that allow its successful completion. A particular attention will be devoted to strategies and technologies enabling innovation and sustainability in medicinal chemistry.
Reference texts
1) Introduzione alla Chimica Farmaceutica, Graham L. Patrick, II Edizione (Editore: EdiSes).

2) Drugs: From Discovery to Approval, 2nd Edition Rick Ng (Editore: Wiley-Blackwell).
Educational objectives
The overall aim of the course of Medicinal Chemistry III is to provide the student a wide knowledge on the process of drug discovery and development. Particular attention will be devoted on strategies, innovative approaches, and emerging technologies that characterize the evolution of medicinal chemistry and the modernization of pharmaceutical companies.

The main knowledge gained will be:
- Steps and stages of drug discovery and development
- Design and synthesis of chemical libraries according to the concepts of molecular diversity, lead- and drug-likeness
- Approaches to discover, optimize and develop a lead compound
- Methods to study ligand / target interaction.
- Sustainable drug discovery
- Enabling chemical technologies in drug discovery

The main skills that will be acquired at the end of the course include:
- Ability to set up an experimental study aimed to discover new hit, lead and clinical candidates
- Analyze the process of drug discovery identify problems and propose more sustainable solutions
- Design and synthesis of a chemical library
- Set-up approaches for hit-to-lead exploration and lead optimization
The contents and objectives of the course will be fully acquired and achieved by students if they possess the following knowledge.

Essential knowledge that a student must possess at the beginning of the course:
- Medicinal Chemistry (I and II); Organic Chemistry (I and II); Pharmacology

Skills which the student must have at the beginning of the course:
- Laboratory of drug extraction and synthesis; English.

Useful knowledge that a student must possess at the beginning of the course:
- General chemistry; Physical chemistry.
Teaching methods
- Frontal lectures on all topics of the course.

- Seminars on topics of general interest as well as based on technological and methodological innovation.

- Computational laboratory exercises will also be provided.
Other information
The supplementary and workshop/seminar activities are determined in agreement with students. They may cover seminars, technical and practical discussions, and reinterpretations of common laboratory practices.
Learning verification modality
The exam includes an oral exam consisting of a discussion aimed at ascertaining the extent of the level of understanding reached by the student and his depth of understanding in the topics of the program.

In addition, it will be evaluated the ability to speak with propriety of language and organization of the subject exposed.

For information on support services for students with disabilities see: http://www.unipg.it/disabilita-e-dsa
Extended program

Selection and validation of a biological target

Primary and secondary screenings

Computational chemistry
- Virtual screening
- Target- and ligand-based approaches
- Chemoinformatics (COMFA, AI)

Hit-to-lead optimization
- 'Traditional' and ‘fragment-based’ approach in medicinal chemistry
- Property and activity of hit and lead compounds
- Strategies for the discovery and development of a lead compound
- Strategies for compounds libraries building (drug-like, lead-like, natural-like)

Identification of lead compounds

Importance of synthesis in drug discovery
- Concepts
- Sustainable drug discovery and green chemistry principles
- Case studies

Combinatorial and solid phase synthesis
- Principles and metods
- Antisense oligonucleotides
- Examples and applications
- Parallel synthesis and split-and-pool approach

Target- e diversity-oriented synthesis
- Principles and applications in drug discovery
- DOS libraries (es: shikimic acid)
- Biomimetic DOS (es: galantanamine)

Complexity generating reactions
- Chemical diversity and complexity
- Tandem and multicomponent reactions

Microwave and continuous flow synthesis
- Principles and tools
- Porcess optimization and DoE
- Examples and applications

Photo- and electro-chemistry
- Principles, history and tools
- Examples and applications

Biocatalysis in drug synthesis
- Principles and tools
- Examples and applications
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