Industrial pharmacy
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Giovanna Traina
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code GP004551
Location PERUGIA
Teacher Giovanna Traina
  • Giovanna Traina
  • 48 ore - Giovanna Traina
Learning activities Base
Area Discipline biologiche
Academic discipline BIO/09
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Physiology studies the vital functions that allow humans to analyze the environment in which they live, move, communicate, reproduce and survive. Physiology investigates the mechanisms underlying the normal functioning of the organism, and also explains its control and regulation, integrating the function from the molecular level to the whole organism. The man is not a sum of organs, nerves or muscles, but a single whole. This functional solidarity is made possible by the integrative activity of the nerve centers and the unifying concept of homeostasis of the internal medium
Reference texts Fisiologia Umana- Fondamenti. Edi.Ermes Ed. 2018

Carbone, Aicardi, Maggi - Fisiologia: dalle molecole ai sistemi integrati. Edises, Ed. 2018.

Fisiologia, a cura di GL. Monticelli, CEA-Zanichelli, Ed. 2014
Educational objectives The altered functioning of organs or apparatuses due to exogenous and / or endogenous causes beyond the limits that our organism is able to control and correct constitutes the pathological condition, on which the pharmacological treatment intervenes.
Therefore, Physiology defines the necessary and fundamental premises for the understanding of Pathology and Pharmacology.
The course has set itself the goal of illustrating the general operation of the main equipment, and stimulate the students' research of cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie higher functions.
Prerequisites In order to be able to understand and to know how to tackle the course, students must have the basic notions of human anatomy and biology, propedeutics to physiology.
Teaching methods The course is organized as follows: Lectures on the subjects of the course.
Learning verification modality The exam consists of an oral test. Such oral test consists on an interview of about 20-30 minutes long aiming to ascertain the knowledge level and the understanding capability acquired by the student. The oral exam will also test the student communication skills and his autonomy in the organization and integration of the theoretical topics.
Extended program General physiology of the neuron.
The plasmatic membrane. Laws of diffusion. Potential distribution. Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Physiology of excitable membranes. Capacity and conductance of the membrane. Constant time and space. Potential balance. Nernst equation. Resting potential and action potential. Ionic basis of action potential. Membrane channels.

Electrical and chemical synapses. Tests of mediation in chemical synaptic transmission. Neuromuscular junction.Ionic basis of the potential of plaque. Experiments on the release of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction. Mechanisms of transmitter release. Role of Ca2. EPSP and IPSP. Receptors. G-proteins and second messengers. Signal transduction pathways.

Physiology of muscle tissue
Muscle contraction. Muscle twitch and tetanus. Electromechanical coupling. Role of Ca2.

Spinal cord
General property of reflexes. Postural tone. Decerebration rigidity. Neuromuscular spindles. Tendon organs. Stretch reflex.

Autonomic Nervous System.
Distribution and organization of the autonomic nervous system.
Central Nervous System.
Sensorial System. Pain.

Physiology of circulation
Cardiovascular system. Cardiac cycle. General electrophysiology of cardiac muscle. Electrocardiogram. Starling's Law. Extrinsic innervation of the heart. General information on the peripheral circulation. Hemodynamics and its applications. Blood pressure. Vasomotor tone. Baroreflex.

Physiology of respiration
Respiratory mechanics. Gas Laws. Diffusion of gases through the alveolar surface. Transport of O2 in the blood. Transport of CO2 in the blood. Respiratory center and modulation of respiratory rhythm.

Physiology of kidney.
Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance. Mechanisms of reabsorption and tubular secretion. Renin-angiotensin system. Fluid and electrolyte balance. Acid-basic balance and compensatory mechanisms. The urinary concentrating mechanism.

Digestive physiology
Gastric and pancreatic secretion. Intestinal absorption. Motility and peristalsis. Liver functions.

Physiology of endocrine glands.
Hormones of protein nature. Steroid hormones. Adrenals. Posterior pituitary and neurosecretion. Adenohypophysis. Releasing factors. Thyroid. Pancreas and diabetes.


Code A002514
Location PERUGIA
Teacher Maria Agnese Della Fazia
  • Maria Agnese Della Fazia
  • 48 ore - Maria Agnese Della Fazia
Learning activities Base
Area Discipline mediche
Academic discipline MED/04
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Intrinsic and Extrinsic Causes of Disease. Regressive and Progressive processes. Oncology. Classification of the tumors. Carcinogenesis. Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes. Invasive cancer and metastasis. Acute and Chronic inflammation. Physiopathology of Human Apparatuses
Reference texts -MAINIERO F. – MISASI R. – SORICE M. - Volumi 1 e 2- Patologia Generale e
Fisiopatologia Generale Ed. PICCIN - VI edizione
-DIANZANI : Istituzioni di Patologia Generale Ed. UTET
Educational objectives The General Pathology course is a teaching of the Master Degree Course in Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, which studies the causes (etiology) and pathological phenomena, at the molecular and cellular level, of disease with respect to the biology and physiology of the cell. The General Pathology Course allows you to acquire knowledge about the basic mechanisms that underlie the most frequent diseases in humans and the response of the cell to changes in the external environment. The main objective of the course is to acquire knowledge about: intrinsic molecular pathologies physical, chemical and biological causes of disease molecular mechanisms of cell death carcinogenesis, molecular oncology cellular and molecular processes of inflammation, pathophysiology of tissues and organs in the human.
The final oral examination and the optional seminars will be tools to evaluate the level of learning and the ability to communicate and explain, in a clear and precise way, but at the same time rigorous, immediate and exhaustive the knowledge acquired. The skills acquired in the study of this discipline allows the student to achieve a broad overview of the correlation between the human genome, the environment and the development of pathologies and allows, to obtain the tools to have a clear picture of the causes of the diseases and their specific mechanism of onset and development and of the general pathophysiology of the most frequent diseases in order to propose suitable behaviors and treatments as a future professional in Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology.
Prerequisites The acquisition of relevant knowledge in the Course of General Pathology, requires the achievement of pertinent knowledge Biology and Genetics, Biochemistry and Physiology. The skills obtained in the above disciplines are essential so that students can fully understand the concepts of etiopathology of the Cellular and Molecular Pathology and pathophysiology of organs. After having acquired and made the knowledge his own, at the didactic level, the student will derive a considerable profit from the course for his future professional competence.
Teaching methods Frontal lessons are given to students. The lessons cover the entire program of the course of study and also topics related to some of the more frequent pathologies that the future Professional in Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology will face during the profession. Each lesson lasts two hours in which the specific topic is administered, correlating it with the others already exposed, to allow the student to have a broad view of the topics covered.
Other information Schedule of the lessons and exams: The schedule of the lessons and
exams is posted on the Course website By appointment through e-mail.
Teaching room, Building C, 3th Floor, Medicine and Surgery Course,
Piazzale Severi, 1. Perugia.
For students with disabilities see the website
Learning verification modality The student's assessment is divided into an oral test at the end of the course. The verification of the student's preparation has an average duration of thirty minutes depending on the degree of knowledge of the topics covered and on the student's exposure skills. The final exam consists of the oral presentation of three topics concerning the discipline studied concerning: cellular and molecular pathology, the intrinsic and extrinsic causes of disease; of oncological and inflammatory pathology, of general organ pathophysiology. The oral exam is fundamental for the verification of the knowledge acquired by the student, of his expository ability and of the mastery of the studied subject with particular reference to the ability to connect between the different topics.
Extended program Intrinsic causes of disease
Genetic pathology
Autosomal and heterochromosome monogenic diseases. Genetic heterogeneity, allelic heterogeneity, interaction between genes and their products, gene-environment interaction, dynamic and somatic mutations, epigenetic modifications.
- DNA mutations and repair mechanisms.
-Mitochondrial DNA mutations.
- Genetic susceptibility to diseases in humans. penetrance concept.
- Blood pathology from genetic defect: Thalassemia, Spherocytosis, Sickle cell, Hemophilia.
-Muscular dystrophy.
-Chromosomal alterations. Numerical and structural alterations of chromosomes: Down syndrome, Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome.
Extrinsic causes of disease:
-Physical agents. Non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. Low and high temperatures: freezing and burns: Electric and electromagnetic energy.
-Chemical and environmental agents. Environmental pollution. Amazing substances.
-Food causes. Vitamins A, D, E, K, group B and C.
- Free radicals. Oxidative stress.
- Embriopathy and fetopathies of a physical, infectious, endocrine and toxic nature.
Cellular pathology
-The cell: outline of the structure and main functions. Cell cycle, phases and cycle regulatory proteins. Membrane receptors, main pathways of the mitogenic signal.
-Elementary lesions of the cell. Pathology of nucleus, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, cytoskeleton, peroxisomes, Golgi apparatus and cell membrane.
Regressive processes
-Physiological and pathological atrophies.
-intracellular regressive. Vacuolar, hydropic degeneration and turbid swelling. Hyaline and mucous degeneration. Fatty.
-Extracellular regressive processes. Amyloidosis. Hyaline, fibrinoid and mucous degeneration. Pathology of extracellular matrix components, fibrosis, cirrhosis, sclerosis.
Cell death. Necrosis. Various types of necrosis. Gangrene. The outcomes of the necrotic process. Apoptosis. Molecular events of apoptotic death.
- Concepts of aging. Senescence theories. Senescence in intermitotic and post-mitotic cells. Molecular level senescence analysis. Aging of Organism, cellular and subcellular. Aging pathology.
Immunopathology and Autoimmune disease concept.
Progressive processes
Physiological and pathological hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The regenerative process of labile, stable and perennial cells. Liver regeneration. The reconstitution.
-Classification of tumors. Characteristics of normal and transformed cells. Metaplasia. Dysplasia. Anaplasia. Benign and malignant tumors. Histogenic classification and morphology elements of benign and malignant human tumors. Carcinoma in situ.
-Elements of tumor epidemiology. Carcinogenesis: chemical, physical (ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation), viral, environmental causes. -Co-carcinogenesis, mechanisms of transformation.
-Molecular bases of cell transformation. Pathogenetic mechanisms. Concept of oncogene and tumor suppressor. Control of DNA replication. Mutations. Hereditary familial neoplasms. Karyotype and chromosomal alterations in tumors.
-Role of the apoptosis control in tumors.
-Molecular pathology of DNA repair. Pathology of mismatch repair. Pathology of excision repair. Xeroderma pigmentosum and telangiectasic ataxia.
- Pathology of transcription and translation.
-Tumor angiogenesis.
-Concept of tumor invasiveness. Metastasization process. Molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of metastasis. Primitive and metastatic tumors. Pathways of metastasization.
-General characters. Definition of inflammation. Mechanisms of recognition of a pathogen. Distinctive features between acute and chronic inflammation.
-Acute exudative phlogosis (Angiophlogosis). Phases. Plasma and tissue mediators of inflammation. Exudation: the different types of exudate. Acute phase proteins. Acute inflammation cells. Diapedesis, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The different types of acute inflammation: serous, serum-fibrinous, fibrous, catarrhal, purulent, hemorrhagic, necrotic-hemorrhagic and allergic.
Chronic phlogosis (histophlogosis). Chronic inflammation cells.
Chronic granulomatous and interstitial inflammations. Granuloma structure: tuberculoma, granuloma of viral origin, foreign body granuloma.
- Outcomes of inflammatory processes.
-Repairing processes and granulation tissue. Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology of blood
- Changes in blood mass. Erythrocytes: Polycythemias and Erythremias. Haemoglobinopathies. Anemias.
Lymphohematopoietic tumors. Acute and chronic leukemias.
- Platelets, the process of hemostasis and coagulation. Haemorrhages.
Thrombotic and embolic processes. Disseminated Intravascular Coaugulation (CID).
Pathophysiology of the heart and circulation
- Congenital and acquired vices. Endocarditis and valvulopathies.
- Ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction. Cardiomyopathies. Heart failure and heart failure.
- Hypertension and hypotension.
- Concept and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and associated complications.
- Shock: causes of shock, evolutions and phases, compensation mechanisms. Edema
Pathophysiology of the respiratory system
- Changes in gas exchange and lung perfusion. Pathogenesis of respiratory failure. Inflammatory processes.
- Bronchial asthma. Obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, atelectasis, pulmonary emphysema, pneumothorax.
- Acute and chronic pulmonary edema.
- Hypoxia
Pathophysiology of the liver
- Primary liver diseases. Inflammatory and degenerative processes, hepatitis, cirrhosis.
- Jaundices. Liver failure.
- Portal hypertension.
Pathophysiology of the kidney
- Alterations of glomerular filtration and tubular resorption. Proteinurie. Hereditary tubular pathology: renal diabetes.
- Vascular nephropathies. Interstitial nephritis, pyelonephritis and cystitis.
- Kidney failure.
- Acute and chronic uremia.
Pathophysiology of the endocrine system
- Hormones, mechanisms of action, the feed-back system, endocrine hypothalamus and pituitary: (hypothalamic-pituitary axis, adenohypophysis hormones, hypopituitarism and hyperpituitarism, posterior pituitary: oxytocin and vasopressin, diabetes insipid.)
Endocrine pancreas: effects and action of glucagon and insulin, diabetes mellitus: etiopathogenetic, metabolic aspects and complications.
Alteration of thermoregulation - Fever. Hypothermia and hyperthermia.
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