Industrial pharmacy
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Anna Donnadio
  • Anna Donnadio
  • 48 ore - Anna Donnadio
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Learning activities
Attività formative affini o integrative
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Principles of Analytical Chemistry. Equilibria of precipitation, electron transfer, proton transfer, complexation, in the light of chemical analysis. Separation processes.
Introduction to the statistic treatment of data.
Reference texts
D.C. Harris, Chimica Analitica Quantitativa, Zanichelli, Bologna 2005.
Additional material downloadable from the web site unistudium.unipg.it.
Educational objectives
The course aims to introduce students to the understanding of the principles upon which the chemical analysis in solution and its use in the quantitative analysis of volumetric and gravimetric, in order to provide useful tools for the laboratory courses of the following years.
The main knowledge gained will be:
- Mechanisms of formation of precipitates
- Properties of colloidal state
- Treatment of acid-base equilibria
- Operation of the electrodes for potentiometric measurements
- Ripartition and distribution equilibria between immiscible phases
The main skills (ability to apply knowledge acquired):
- Use of precipitation reactions in chemical analysis
- Use of acid-base reactions in chemical analysis
- Use of complexation reactions in chemical analysis
- Use of redox reactions in chemical analysis.
In order to understand and achieve the intended learning is important that the student has mastered the topics covered in the teaching of General and Inorganic Chemistry, then has already passed this examination.
In particular the knowledge of the following topics is essential:
- Electronic structure of atoms and chemical bonding
- Polarity of the molecules and intermolecular interactions
- Principles of thermodynamics
- Chemical equilibrium with particular reference to the balance in aqueous solution (solubility equilibria and acid-base equilibria)
Furthermore the knowledge of the following topics is important:
- Coordination compounds
- Basic concepts of chemical kinetics
- Basic concepts of electrochemical and galvanic cells.
Teaching methods
The course is organized as follows:
- Lectures on all the topics of the course. The lessons will be conducted with the help of the blackboard and through slide shows.
- Numerical exercises in the classroom for the solution of numerical exercises guided with the aid of the blackboard.
The teaching material (slides, exercises during numerical exercises, texts of previous written tests, other material) are made available to students on the e-studium platform after registration.
Learning verification modality
The evaluation of the actual acquisition by students of the learning outcomes will be done through an written test.
The exam consists of questions on theoretical and practical aspects related to the issues addressed in teaching and reported in the detailed program of the course. The purpose of the exam is to assess the knowledge, the understanding and the discipline language acquisition. Moreover, the ability of the student to explain the theoretical aspects and to apply the skills acquired in more complex systems, correlated to the program of teaching, is verified.
Extended program
Introduction on Analytical Methods. Classical and instrumental methods. Sensitivity of analytical methods. Standard solutions. Ionic solids and precipitation reactions. Gravimetric analysis. Precipitate formation mechanism. Saturation degree and crystal growth. The colloidal state. Factors affecting the purity of precipitates. Controlled precipitation and homogeneous precipitation. Precipitation titrations. End-point determination: some methods for chloride analysis.
Protonic transfer reactions in aqueous solution. Outline on the accurate treatment of acid-base equilibria: charge and mass balance. Protonic condition. Graphic representation of acid-base equilibria. Distribution curves and logarithmic diagrams of concentration. Acid-base titration curves. Acid-base indicators. Errors in titrations.
Electron transfer reactions. Standard electrode potential and pH. Redox reactivity of water. Graphic representation of redox equilibria. Pourbaix diagrams of some redox systems. Potentiometric methods. Reference electrodes: calomel and Ag/AgCl electrodes. Indicator electrodes: membrane potential and ion-selective electrodes, some examples. Glass electrode for pH measurements. Electrode calibration. Redox titrations and common redox reagents. Redox indicators. Problems on the calibration of an instrumental method. Complexation reactions. Coordination compounds. Nomenclature. Metal-ligand bond description according to the valence bond model. Monodentate or polydentate ligands. Formation constants. Consecutive and cumulative constants. Chelating effect. EDTA. Effect of pH on the complexation reactions with EDTA. Conditional constant. Complexometric titrations. Metallochromic indicators.
Introduction on separation processes. Ripartition and distribution. Solvent extaction. Effects of pH. Extraction of metals with chelating agents. Treatment of the analytical data. An outline on errors in analytical chemistry.
Introduction to the statistical treatment of experimental data: Significant figures, rounding, propagation of inaccuracies. Systematic and random errors, precision, accuracy, sensitivity, S / N ratio, LOD, LOQ. Gaussian distribution of random errors, characteristics of the Gaussian curve, mean, variance, standard deviation,% RDS, normal Gaussian curve. Statistical tests with the normal Gaussian curve for a large population and Student's t test for a small population. Notes on the use of the t test for the comparison of means and the F test for the comparison of variances. Dixon Q test for suspicious data. Notes on calibration problems, two-point and multi-point calibration (least squares).
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