Industrial pharmacy
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Ciriana Orabona
  • Ciriana Orabona
  • Claudia Volpi (Codocenza)
  • 40 ore - Ciriana Orabona
  • 40 ore (Codocenza) - Claudia Volpi
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Learning activities
Discipline biologiche e farmacologiche
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACOGNOSY AND TOXICOLOGY: General principles of Pharmacology. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolisms and Elimination of drugs (ADME profile). Pharmacodynamics: drug receptors and mechanisms of signal transduction. Dose-response relationships. GENERAL TOXICOLOGY: poison and antidote. PHARMACOGNOSY: Definition of drug and active principles. Extraction methods. Example of biological active plants.
Reference texts
Clementi F., Fumagalli G. Farmacologia Generale e molecolare. EDRA.
A. Bruni- Farmacognosia generale e Applicata-Piccin;F. Capasso, R. De Pasquale, G. Grandolini, N. Mascolo- Farmacognosia- Springer
Educational objectives
The course of Pharmacology, pharmacognosy and general toxicology is the first of three teachings of Pharmacology. The main goal of education
is to provide to the students the pharmacological basis for the understanding of the following two teachings, represented by Pharmacotherapy and biodrugs and Experimental Pharmacology. The general pharmacology is the study of the fundamentals of drug action that evaluates the relationship between body and drug, and analyzes the general mechanisms of interaction between the two systems. All the drugs share some general principles
that are independent of the nature of the effect and which are common to all. The knowledge gained will enable the student to achieve the
following skills: 1) to be able to calculate the correct dosage of a drug 2) to avoid toxic effects 3) rational use of medicines and to achieve maximum efficacy with minimal toxicity.
Pharmacognosy teaching provides knowledge about crude drug and active principles, classes of secondary active metabolites, extraction methods.
The student who is going to the course Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy and Toxicology must have successfully passed the exams of General and
Applied Biochemistry and General Physiology which would allow him to easily understand the path of a drug in the body. It would be very useful that the student had successfully passed the exam in Molecular Biology. To effectively follow and understand the topics covered by
Pharmacognosy is necessary for the student to have a basic knowledge of Plant Biology. The knowledge of these topics is indispensable for the student who wants to follow the course with profit.
Teaching methods
Face-to-face teaching
Other information
For info about support services for the students with disability and/or DSA, please see the web page
Learning verification modality
The exam of Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy and Toxicology includes a single oral exam, which consists in a discussion lasting about 20 minutes aimed at ascertaining the level of knowledge and understanding achieved by students on the theoretical and methodological implications listed in the program. The oral test will also verify the acquisition by the student of an appropriate language and communication skills and self-organization of the exposure on the topics in theoretical content.
Extended program
PHARMACOKINETICS: passages of drugs across cell membranes; routes of administration and absorption; bioavailability; distribution of drugs in the body; volume of distribution, binding to plasma proteins; drug metabolism; excretion; time-course of drug plasmatic contents (after single or repeated administration). PHARMACODINAMICS: targets and mechanisms of drug action; receptors, classification of membrane receptors, intracellular receptors, dose-response curve; agonists, partial agonists, antagonists; individual variations (effects of age, pathological states, drug interactions, tolerance, placebo effects).
GENERAL TOXICOLOGY: side-effects, overdose, idiosyncratic and allergic reactions; teratogenesis and fetal toxicity; Carcinogenesis; drug dependency. Clinical evaluation. Pharmacosurveillance and drug monitoring.
ELEMENTS OF BOTANY: morphology of leaves, flowers, fruits and roots. Latex and resins. Medicinal plants and crude drugs. Phytocomplex and isolated active compounds. Phytotoxicity. Cultivation, harvesting, drying, preparation of medicinal plants. Extraction methodologies (enfleurage,
distillation and solvent extraction). Conservation of plants.
Obiettivi Agenda 2030 per lo sviluppo sostenibile
Aim 3
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