Industrial pharmacy
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Antimo Gioiello
  • Antimo Gioiello
  • Bruno Cerra (Codocenza)
  • 83 ore - Antimo Gioiello
  • 24 ore (Codocenza) - Bruno Cerra
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Learning activities
Discipline farmaceutico-alimentari
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
The Course aims to provide students with the theoretical and practical guidance for the synthesis and purification of drugs, and the isolation of active principles of biological and pharmacological interest. Part of the course will also be devoted to the study of new sustainable synthetic and extractive approaches,includign continuous flow chemistry.
Reference texts
Vogel: Chimica Organica Pratica. Ed. Ambrosiana
Roberts, Gilbert, Martin: Chimica Organica Sperimentale. Ed. Zanichelli
Pavia, Lampman, Kriz: Il Laboratorio di Chimica Organica. Ed. Sorbona
Cozzi, Protti, Ruaro: Analisi Chimica - Moderni Metodi Strumentali. Ed. Zanichelli
Skoog, Leary: Chimica Analitica Strumentale. Ed. EdiSES

Scientific literature provided by the lecturer.
Educational objectives
The Course represents the study of the most significant methods and laboratory practices for the preparation and isolation of biologically active substances and compounds of pharmaceutical interest.
The main goal of the Course is to provide students with the basics to deal with the synthesis of drugs and the extraction of active ingredients from natural sources.
The main knowledge gained will be:
- Quality and safety standard and behaviour in a laboratory for pharmaceutical synthesis;
- Knowledge concerning equipment for chemical reactions and common reagents and solvents used in synthesis and extraction processes;
- Evaluate and explain the effects of the experimental parameters and protocols on the outcome of a synthetic reaction;
- Knowledge of procedures of reaction work-up and isolation and purification of the synthesized product;
- General methods for the preparation of extracts of vegetable origin; extraction, isolation and identification of the active principles;
- Continuous flow synthesis.
In order to better understand and successfully apply the methodologies and techniques covered within the Teaching Course, the student should have attended lessons of Organic Chemistry I, Organic Chemistry II and Medicinal Chemistry I and, possibly, to have passed the exam of Organic Chemistry I.

Moreover, topics of the module require of having completed the laboratory of Organic Chemistry II and have passed the exam of Physical Methods in Organic Chemistry.
Teaching methods
The Course is organized as follows:
- Face-to-face lectures on theoretical topics covered in the course and on practical experiences conducted in the laboratory;
- Practical exercises in the laboratory of chemical synthesis dedicated to the preparation, work-up, and purification of drugs and to the extraction and isolation of active principles from natural sources. If necessary, students are organized in working groups;
- Seminars on topics of general interest as well as based on technological and methodological innovation.
Other information
The supplementary activities are determined in agreement with students. They may cover seminars, technical and practical discussions, and reinterpretations of common laboratory practices.
Learning verification modality
The Course makes use of the following methods to evaluate the outcomes of learning:
a) Progress assessments on the attitude, results and progress achieved by the student in terms of common technical and practical synthetic and extractive procedures performed during the practical exercises. These assessments take into account the behavior of the student into the laboratory, the capacity and the laboratory reports carried out for each experience. These reports are focused on the description of the experience, the development of self-reflection and analysis of the conducted experience, in general, tending to establish the acquisition of an autonomous practical ability, judgment thereon and communication.
b) Oral exam, consisting of questions on practical and theoretical aspects related to the issues addressed in Teaching Course and, to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding, as well as the ability to solve and apply practical problems, and expose them properly.

For information on support services for students with disabilities and or DSA visit the page https://www.unipg.it/disabilita-e-dsa
Extended program
- Introduction to synthetic techniques and methodologies: synthetic strategies, equipment for chemical reactions, control of reaction temperature, addition of reagents, magnetic and mechanical stirring, use of inert gases. Special equipment. Preparation of anhydrous solvents, drying of solids.
- Effect of reaction parameters and experimental protocols in the reaction outcome.
- Reaction processing: filtration, extraction, removing the solvent.
- Purification of a crude reaction mixture (Separation, purification and identification of reaction products): Acid-Base extraction, crystallization, sublimation, simple and fractional distillation under atmospheric pressure and vacuum, steam distillation, preparative TLC and column chromatography.
- General methods for the preparation of herbal extracts; isolation and identification of active principles.
- Safety standards in the laboratory.
- Individual practices of synthesis of pharmaceutical interest compounds and isolation of active principles from plant drugs.
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