Biological sciences
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Patrizia Rosignoli
  • Patrizia Rosignoli
  • 56 ore - Patrizia Rosignoli
Course Regulation
Coorte 2019
Learning activities
Discipline fisiologiche e biomediche
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Epidemiology and prevention of chronic degenerative and infectious diseases. Main etiological agents of infectious diseases and transmission modalities. General prophylaxis of infectious diseases and specific examples. Intoxication and food poisoning and the self-control system (HACCP). Waters for human consumption and water purification treatments (disinfection). Urban solid waste management.
Reference texts
- Barbuti S., Bellelli E., Fara G.M. e Giammanco G. , Igiene, Monduzzi
Editore, Bologna -
Ultima Edizione.
- Meloni C. e Pelissero G. – Igiene – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano 2007.
- Normativa ambientale.
Educational objectives
The main objective of the Hygiene course is to provide students with the basics to tackle the study of infectious diseases from a prevention point of view. The main knowledge acquired will be:
- Knowledge of the epidemiological methodology for the study of risk assessment.
- Knowledge of the main health determinants
- Knowledge of the main modes of transmission of infectious diseases.
- Knowledge of the main prophylaxis measures.
- Knowledge of the main diagnostic identification techniques of infectious diseases.
- Knowledge of the main national and community regulations on the environment and food safety.
The main skills will be:
- understand the main dangers to human health deriving from the various determinants and be able to choose and implement the best identification techniques in the laboratory and the appropriate prophylactic strategies
- knowing how to interpret the report values ¿¿based on what is required by the relevant legislation.
Knowledge of cell biology, immunology,
general microbiology, biochemistry and
organic chemistry
Teaching methods
Face to Face lessons with power point slides. In the event of a health emergency requiring social distancing, the lessons are held remotely.
Other information
Frequency not mandatory but recommended.
Learning verification modality
The only final oral exam with three questions concerning the topics covered, in general there might be a question of epidemiology, one of environmental hygiene and one of prophylaxis of infectious diseases. The exam will last about 30 minutes.
Extended program
Definitions: hygiene, health, epidemiology. Infectious and chronic degenerative diseases. Risk factors and determinants of health. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.

Observational descriptive epidemiology. Sources of data on health statistics: census, mandatory reporting, hospital records, records of the disease.

Measurements of frequency: ratios, proportions, specific crude rates (mortality rates: infant, neonatal, early-neonatal, late-neonatal, post-neonatal, perinatal, stillbirth rates, incidence and case fatality), prevalence, life tables, Lexis’s curve, standardization of rates. Measures of association: relative risk, odds ratio, attributable risk.

Observational analytical epidemiology and experimental epidemiology. Retrospective and prospective studies.

Primary prevention of infectious diseases: the epidemiological chain (reservoirs of infection, source of infection, vehicles and carriers, susceptible host); transmission of infectious disease, elimination of the microorganism, way of penetration of the microorganism; characteristics of pathogenic microorganism (virulence, infectivity, invasiveness). Bacterial toxins: exotoxins and endotoxins. Host defenses against microorganisms: non-specific defense (cutaneous and mucosal barriers, the inflammatory response, phagocytosis), specific defenses (cellular and humoral response).

Epidemiology and prevention of infectious diseases: complaint, isolation, diagnostic assessment, disinfection, sterilization, disinfestation, passive and active immunization, chemoprophylaxis.

Diagnostic assessment: pre-analytical phase (specimen collection, sample transport and storage) and analytical phase (bacteriological examination, bacterial culture, biochemical tests, antibiogram, agglutination reactions and precipitation reactions, immunofluorescence, PCR, multiplex-PCR and PCR-RFLP , Western blotting).

Epidemiology and prevention of airborne diseases (tuberculosis and “streptococcie” scarlet fever) of parenterally transmitted diseases (hepatitis B), of fecal-oral cycle diseases (salmonellosis) of foodborne diseases (botulism) and zoonoses (rabies, brucellosis and malaria).

Food as transmission vehicle of infectious diseases: intoxication and food-borne. Contamination of food. Factors affecting microbial growth in food. Strategies of prevention: the HACCP system.

Water as a human health influencing factor. Drinking water and treatment systems .
The soil and human health.
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