Biological sciences
Study-unit Code
Desiree Bartolini
  • Desiree Bartolini
  • 48 ore - Desiree Bartolini
Course Regulation
Coorte 2022
Learning activities
Attività formative affini o integrative
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Understanding 3 fundamental aspects of the anatomical systems:
1. systems meet specific functional requirements;
2. systems consist of various organs functionally interconnected;
3. The cardiovascular system, the nervous system and the endocrine system functionally interconnect different organs and anatomical systems.

On this basis it will require understanding of the key concepts relating to:

• normal macroscopic structure of the major organs and systems with particular reference to a topographic setting of the same
• Histological structure correlated with the function
• Functional considerations and medical applications for understanding of the structures.
Reference texts
Gray's Anatomy, The basics, Edra.

Atlas of Human Anatomy, Prometheus, Edises University.

John S.P. Lumley, Anatomia di superficie. Le basi anatomiche dell’esame clinico. CEA Edizioni.
Human Anatomy, Edises Università, Martini, Tallitsch, Nath.
Educational objectives
The course in human anatomy aims to present the anatomo-clinical characterization of the human body at the macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural levels, including the time dimension from embryonic development, organogenesis, somatic growth, and aging.
At the end of the course, the student should know the essential morphological and biomechanical characteristics, modalities of functioning and general control mechanisms of anatomical systems, organs, tissues and cells of the human body, as well as their main morpho-functional correlates under normal conditions.

1) Knowledge and understanding: at the end of the course, the student knows and understands the structural and functional organization of the human body; knows and understands the main anatomo-clinical applications of structural organization at each structural level of the human body.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding: at the end of the course, the student possesses the ability to be able to connect the macroscopic, structural and ultrastructural organization of systems and organs with the corresponding functions. The student is able to recognize the macroscopic structure of systems and organs, knowing how to connect it to notions of surface anatomy, topographical, radiological and clinical anatomy so as to be able to identify and interpret anatomical regions and structures. He/she is also able to apply anatomical knowledge in solving problems related to understanding physiology, pathology, instrumental physical semeiotics and clinical correlates.
Autonomy of judgment: upon completion of the course, the student will have the ability to appropriately evaluate macroscopic and microscopic anatomy data and relate them to data from physiology, pathophysiology, and physical and instrumental semeiotics. The student should acquire the ability to correlate anatomical changes and their implication in the main pathophysiological processes leading to the most common disease states; he/she should refer to knowledge of anatomy in performing physical semeiotics maneuvers and interpreting instrumental semeiotics data.
Communication skills: at the end of the course, the student will have the ability to be able to describe and explain (both in oral and written form) the normal morphology and structure of the human body also knowing how to effectively use the communicative tools proper to scientific publications and communications.
Learning skills: by the end of the course, the student will have acquired the cross-curricular learning skills common to the logic of scientific inquiry in the biomedical field.
Basic concepts in biology, embryology and histology are required

Basic concepts of learning methodology
Teaching methods
At the beginning of the course, the lecturer explains the main learning methodologies based on modern pedagogical principles for learning.

Frontal lectures, clinical anatomy tutorials and practical tests are organized in a dedicated calss-room set up for anatomy students, including plastic models and bone material
All the didactical material (slide and other materials) is available on the website Unistudium. The student can download in his/her device the slides of the daily lecture before the beginning of the lecture.
Other information
The course of Human Anatomy is topographically and clinically oriented.
Learning verification modality
Before starting the course, Students are completely informed about the evaluation method and the rules of the exam. The evaluation is based on a written test with multiple-choice questions and figures to identify, for a total of over 700 indications of human anatomy.
This written exam with multiple-choice questions is graded based on a proportion between the total number of questions and the percentage of correct and incorrect answers. For each correct question of gives a score of +1. The test is the same for all, the questions are short and equally short are the answers. One correct and 4 incorrect answers for each question.
Extended program
Educational Objective: To understand that the skeleton is responsible for the shape, makes it possible movements, is home to the ancestors of the elements of the blood, is the main deposition of calcium, helps to delimit the regions and the body cavities where they are allocated equipment and systems.
Educational Program: know the position and the general characteristics of the main bony structures of the skeleton (particularly the skeleton of the trunk, pelvis and skull). This U.D. will not be treated individually, but will be segmented in other units and included in the explanation of topographical anatomy of the various regions.

U.D. Skeletal Muscles

Educational Objective: To understand the main movements possible for the limbs and the main muscles that perform them.
Educational Program: know the muscle compartments of the limbs and the origin, insertion, blood supply, innervation and the possible actions of the main muscles that are accommodated in each compartment.

U.D. Chest

Educational Objective: To understand the functional anatomy of the thoracic cage and organs that will stay with particular reference to cardiovascular and respiratory structures.
Educational Program: functional notions on the rib cage and intercostal spaces; pleura, lungs anatomy macroscopic, microscopic and functional of the bronchial tree and lung parenchyma, respiratory mechanics and functional influences the autonomic nervous system, heart and great vessels: faces and location of the heart, pericardium, and functional gross anatomy of the heart chambers, heart valves and mechanism of the skeleton of the heart conduction system, coronary arteries and their course, aorta and neck vessels, pulmonary artery, superior and inferior vena cava, the pulmonary veins, system of Azygos; mediastinum: limits, division and topographic relations of the viscera present.

U.D. Anterolateral abdominal wall and diaphragm

Educational Objective: To understand the functions of the diaphragm, the anterolateral abdominal wall and the inguinal canal.
Educational Program: main concepts of macroscopic diaphragm, hiatuses and the tendinous center; gross anatomy and position of the external oblique muscles, internal, transverse and upright; macroscopic principal terms of the inguinal canal and its contents.

U.D. Digestive System

Educational Objective: To understand functionally as the digestive system presides over the introduction of food, to their digestion and absorption and elimination of solid waste products.
Educational Program: knowledge of the main macroscopic and microscopic features of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, the most important anatomical relationships between the above structures; peritoneum; vascularization of the gastrointestinal system, functions and regulation of the endocrine system gastroenteric functional effects of innervation of the gastrointestinal system, liver, gallbladder and pancreas: macroscopic aspects, microscopic and functional.

U.D. Spleen and lymph node stations

Learning Objective: to understand the main aspects of macroscopic and microscopic topography.
Educational Program: topographic position and microscopic structure of the spleen, with particular reference to the morphofunctional aspects; distribution of lymph node chains; thoracic duct.

U.D. Urinary System

Educational Objective: To understand how the kidneys purify the blood from the water-soluble products of catabolism, participate in the control of acid-base, govern the regulation of water-salt, participate in the control of blood pressure, the production of red blood cells and all ' apposition of calcium in the bone.
Educational Program: Kidney: location, main macroscopic and microscopic aspects; vascularization urinary tract, the nephron: microscopic and functional aspects of ultrafiltration and tubular reabsorption; ureter: course and microscopic aspects; bladder position, the main aspects macroscopic, microscopic and functional , the structural basis and nervous urination, male and female urethra: macroscopic aspects.

U.D. Pelvis and Perineum
Learning Objective: understanding of anatomical boundaries and knowledge of contained organs and structures with their major anatomical relationships. Understanding the pelvic fascial system.
Didactic Program: Functional anatomy of the pelvic floor and urogenital diaphragm. Membranous and ligamentous fasciae, tendon arches. Male reproductive system: testis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, urethra, bulbourethral glands, penis. Female reproductive system: ovary, uterus, uterine tubes, vagina and vulva; rectum and anal canal. Vascularization and lymphatic drainage of pelvic and perineal organs. Regional function of the autonomic nervous system.
U.D. Endocrine System
Learning Objective: to understand how the endocrine system regulates metabolic activities (anabolism, catabolism), digestion, hydro-saline balance, energy balance, and reproduction.
Didactic Program: know the macro- and microscopic structure, hormones produced, their functional role and regulation of the following endocrine glands: pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenal gland, pancreatic islets, gastroenteric endocrine system, testis, ovary. Endocrine function of the Heart and Lung. Influence of the autonomic nervous system.
U.D. Tegumental System
Training Objective:
understand the organization and functions of the integumentary system.
Describe the histological organization of the layers of the epidermis and dermis, list functions and the specialized cells found in these layers.
Understand the structure of the subcutaneous layer (hypodermis).
Understand and evaluate the anatomy and functions of skin appendages: hair, glands and nails.
Understand how the skin responds to external insults and how it is able to repair itself. Understand the skin aging processes.
U.D. Nervous System
Training Objective: to understand how the sensory system enables perception of the external world; how motor activity is based on the functional interconnection of three major systems: pyramidal, extrapyramidal and cerebellar; how the nervous system presides over cognitive activities, the foundation of relational life and the result of sensory perceptions and memory; how the nervous system regulates visceral activities independently of our will.
Didactic Program: central nervous system: location, functions and related circuits of the cerebral lobes, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus, trunk, reticular and limbic systems, spinal cord; ventricular system and CSF circulation; vasculature of the nervous system: Willis polygon and the major vessels arising from it, vessels of the spinal cord, venous drainage of the nervous system. Meninges. Hints of neurocognitive aspects.
Obiettivi Agenda 2030 per lo sviluppo sostenibile
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