Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Michele Pauluzzi
  • Michele Pauluzzi
  • Giovanni Carlotti (Codocenza)
  • 43 ore - Michele Pauluzzi
  • 19 ore (Codocenza) - Giovanni Carlotti
Course Regulation
Coorte 2021
Learning activities
Sperimentale e applicativo
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Physics experiments in laboratory for a better understanding of the theory; strategies for the experimental approach, data analysis and error treatment. Short theoretical introductions to the experiments.
Reference texts
P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci: Fisica, Vol. II; EdiSES. J. A. Edminister: Circuiti Elettrici; Schaum J.R. Taylor: Introduzione all'analisi degli errori; Zanichelli, Bologna Young: Elaborazione statistica dei dati sperimentali; Veschi Editore
Educational objectives
Purpose of the course is:-a better understanding of theoretical subjects of Physics II course;-the knowledge of the methodology of performing a laboratory experiment;-a deeper understanding of problematics related to data and error analysis.The main competences (i.e. the ability of applying the acquired knowledge) will be:-the development of a general method to address whichever experiment, known or new;-the ability of dealing with experimental errors in a way both rigorous and flexible;-the skills for a proper behaviour in a scientific laboratory
In order to understand and apply the majority of the techniques addressed in the course, it is necessary to have successfully passed the exam of Laboratory I.It is also useful to have attended to the Analisi Matematica I and Fisica II courses, and possibily have successufully passed the corresponding exams.
Teaching methods
Front lessons for a theoretical introducion to the module and for preparation to the single experimentsPractical experiments in laboratory. Students will be organized in 2-4 people groups. 6-8 experiments will be performed by every group, lasting 4-5 hours each.
Other information

Learning verification modality
The exams consists of an oral discussion and possibly of an experimental test.The oral exam consists in an interview lasting about 20 to 30 minutes, during which the student discusses the written reports of the laboratory experiments performed in groups during the course, including the subjects of physics and statistics necessary to the execution of the experiments, with special attention payed to the experimental errors treatment. The interview aims at evaluating the understanding of the experimental techniques and metodologies and the capability of the student of applying them in different experimental situations.The practical part is optional at the discretion of the teacher, in case he finds out its necessity during the discussion of the oral part. The student has to personally perform a practical experiment similar to those conducted during the course, and concomitantly write a report on it. The duration of the experimental test is of about 3-4 hours. The goal of this practical test is to verify the experimental skills of the student, his knowledge of the experimental method and the ability of applying it to a new situation.
Extended program
A) Introduction
A1) Statistics Overview of Statistics. Experimental errors. Anomalous data. Practical examples.
A2) Experimental methodology.
Scheme and organization of an experiment
B1) CC Measurements.
Instrumentation for CC measurements: voltmeter, amperometer, ohm-meter, multimeters; ideal and real instrumentation, use and functioning.
Measurement of resistance: ohm-meter, volt-amperometric method, Wheatstone Bridge.
Verification of Kirchoff laws.
Verification of Thevenin law.
B2) Oscilloscope.
Schematics and use of the scope.
CC and AC measurements. Continuous part of an electric signal. Comparison with other instrumentation.
B3) Diode.
Theory of diode. Characteristic of diode. Electrical circuits with diodes.
B4) Measurements in AC.
Electrical elements. Impedence, theory. AC measurements. Measurement of a capacity. Circuits with capacitors (filters etc.).

Physical Optics, including reflection, refraction, dispersion, interference and diffraction. Different kinds of spectrometers, based on prism, gratings, Michelson interferometer. Light propagation in anisotropic media, polarizers and retarder plates. Introduction to optical sources (lamps, LEDs and lasers) and optical detectors (photomulitpliers, photodiodes and photoconductors).

The course includes some of the following experiments:
- Measurement of electrical quantities: voltage, current, resistance with different methods.
- CC measurements. Verification of Kirchoff laws. Verification of Thevenin laws.
- AC measurements. RC-RL-RCL circuits measurement. Diode characteristics
- optical esperiments concerning reflection and refraction, dispersion, interference and diffraction.
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