Chemical sciences
Study-unit Code
Energy and sustainability
Daniela Lanari
  • Daniela Lanari
  • 42 ore - Daniela Lanari
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Learning activities
Discipline chimiche organiche
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
Materials for Renewable Energy Sources introduces the the student to the organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology. Particularly the course illustrates which organic materials are suitable for the operation of a photovoltaic cell and explains the most suitable methodologies for their synthesis and their role in the active layer morphology.
Reference texts
Slides that will be illustrated during the lessons
Educational objectives
The goal of this course is to provide the student with the following features
- an updated overview of the use of organic photovoltaic in the context of renewable energy sources currently available
- concepts on the basic constituents of an organic photovoltaic cell with particular attention to the organic components in the active layer
- examples of synthetic problems in the preparation of organic polymers and molecules for organic photovoltaics
- role of the organic chemist in organic photovoltaic
In order to follow the course it is advisable that the student possesses basic knowledge of physics such as electrical conduction and characteristics of semiconductor materials, it is also important that he/she is to be able to recall concepts of organic chemistry i.e the reactivity of various functional groups to apply to the synthesis of the organic semiconductors .
Teaching methods
All lectures will be of frontal type. The the topics of the course will be illustrated with the help of powerpoint presentations, students will be invited to participate actively during the lesson commenting on the issues discussed, furthermore during the last lessons of the course the students will be asked to read a paper from literature and to explain this paper to the other collegues in the course. The slides will be uploaded on Unistudium or Teams platform.
Course attendance is not mandatory but it is recommended
Other information
Learning Outcomes: when the exam is successfully passed, the student will acquire the following basic knowledge:- Overview of the state of the art of photovoltaic technology in all its applications- mode of operation of an inorganic and organic photovoltaic cell, in particular the materials the active layer is made of.- Characteristics of Polymers and Organic Molecules used as electron donors and acceptors in electronic devices, strategies to modify the electronic properties and the processability of such materials- synthetic methodologies for the assembly of polymers, in particular cross-coupling techniques, direct hetero-arylation techniques and methods employing supported catalysts and flow.The student who has successfully passed the exam will be able to express the acquired knowledge through the following skills:- Set the photovoltaic technology in the landscape of renewable energies framework indicating the advantages and weaknesses of this technology.- Tell the differences between inorganic and organic photovoltaic, from the basic physical process up to the materials and modules used on the market- Know how to modulate the characteristics of an electron donor constituent for electronic devices through synthetic strategies, and considering each time the importance of polymer processability along with its electronic properties.- Identify the most suitable synthetic methodology for the synthesis of various classes of polymers used in organic photovoltaics- List the advantages and disadvantages of any synthetic methodology also in relation to the sustainability of the synthetic process.- Acquire the ability to establish the role of organic chemistry in suggesting efficient and sustainable synthesis and methodologies for molecules and polymers to be used into an electronic device
Learning verification modality
The exam will be only oral. The student will be asked to explain different topics illustrated during the course, for conversational topics a clear exposition will be adequate instead for those concerning a particular synthetic methodology will be required to know how to draw the involved mechanism. The student should also be able to explain the role and the problems faced by an organic chemist in the design, synthesis and marketing of molecules and polymers useful for organic photovoltaics. The duration of the exam will be about 30-40 minutes. The exam grade will take into account the knowledge acquired by the student during the study, their degree of in-depth and critical ability to recognize the advantages and disadvantages of organic photovoltaics, and finally the role of the organic chemist in the photovoltaic technology. Furthermore, students may illustrate and comment on a paper chosen in agreement with the professor.
Extended program
During the lessons the professor will often ask the students to comment on the explained topics see if the concepts are clear and to stimulate a student's critical approach to the matter of study.• Introduction to the Course: Materials for energy and importance of the methodologies used for their preparation; Energy: analysis of production, consumption and conservation; notes on renewable and non-renewable energy sources.• Solar Energy: background; the photovoltaic effect, the three photovoltaic generations.• Facts about inorganic photovoltaic cells: mono and poly-crystalline silicon cells; Thin film cells: amorphous silicon, CIGS, CIS, CdTe.• Organic photovoltaic cells: principles and limits of operation; herojunction solar cells, bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJ), hybrid cells.• Molecular and polymeric conjugated organic materials for photovoltaic conversion.• Synthetic strategies: polycondensation reactions; soluble precursor method; oxidative homocoupling processes; cross-coupling reactions.• Synthetic strategies to modulate band-gap values.• Cross-coupling: background, mechanisms, catalytic cycle, catalysts employed.• Coupling of Suzuki, Heck, Sonogashira, Stille, Negishi: Applications to the synthesis of organic semiconductors.• Examples of semiconductor organic polymers: preparation methods and applications:Polypropylene-vinylene (PPV)Polythiophenes (PAA)Polycarbazole (PC)Polifluorene (PF) and complex polymer• Small organic molecules used in organic photovoltaics (smBHJ): Comparison with polymer semiconductors, synthesis and applications.• Direct heteroarylatin as an alternative synthetic approach to cross-coupling reactions: applications and limits.• Sustainability of chemical processes: general principles and applications for the synthesis of organic semiconductors flow cross-coupling reactions (reactions in reactors and micro reactors).Heterogeneous and recoverable catalytic palladium supported systems. Basics on the active layer morphology and ways to improve it.
Obiettivi Agenda 2030 per lo sviluppo sostenibile
Clean and accessible energy
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