Food technology and biotechnology
Study-unit Code
Tecnologie birrarie
Roberto Selvaggini
Course Regulation
Coorte 2024
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code A002153
Teacher Ombretta Marconi
  • Ombretta Marconi
  • 27 ore - Ombretta Marconi
Learning activities Affine/integrativa
Area Attività formative affini o integrative
Academic discipline AGR/15
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents The course aims to provide students with the technical-scientific basis for understanding the chemical, physical and sensory properties of beer and the techniques which are commonly used to measure them.
Reference texts Didactic material distributed by the teacher
1. August Gresser, "Il manuale del birraio pratico", Fachverlag Hans Carl GmbH, Numberg
2. Wolfgang Kunze, "Technology Brewing and Malting", VLB, Berlino
Educational objectives The main knowledge gained will be:
1. Chemical, physical, instrumental and sensory evaluation of the quality of the beer.
The main skills (skills) will be:
1. Setting of chemical, physical, instrumental and sensory evaluation of the quality of the beer.
2. Interpretation of analytical data related to the quality of the beer.
Prerequisites In order to understand the topics covered in this course you must have passed the Chemistry exam and have the knowledge of the main steps in the process of malting and brewing. Knowledge of these topics appears to be a prerequisite for the student who wants to follow the course with profit. The knowledge of the basic rules for safety and the correct behavior in a laboratory is also required.
Teaching methods The course is organized as follows:
- Lectures on all the topic of the course;
- Laboratory experiments for the measurement of the main analytical parameters of quality and for the sensory evaluation of the beer.
Other information The teacher meets the students every day, by appointment, at the following address:
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environomental Sciences-Food Technologies Research Unit, Via San Costanzo, Perugia-1st floor.
Learning verification modality The exam consists on an oral test.
The oral tests consists on an interview of about 30 minutes to verify the knowledge level and the understanding capability of the student on the theoretical and applicative topics of the course.
Extended program Main chemical, physical and sensory properties affecting the quality of the beer and the related valuation techniques. Principles of standard and instrumental analysis for the assessment of malt, wort and beer. Standard methods of analysis of malt: production of a standard laboratory wort, moisture, extract, saccharification time, viscosity, pH, color, nitrogen, protein, fermentability. Standard methods of analysis of beer: ethanol, color, pH, bitter, proteins, carbohydrates, dissolved gases (CO2 / O2); foam stability, viscosity measurement, polyphenols. Instrumental methods (HPLC, GC): determination of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the malt and beer, determination of amino acids in the wort and beer, determination of vicinal diketones (VDK) and volatile compounds responsible for flavor beer with reference to the raw materials and the process of fermentation. Sensory analysis of a beer. Definitions of beer quality.


Code A002143
Teacher Roberto Selvaggini
  • Roberto Selvaggini
  • 54 ore - Roberto Selvaggini
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline delle tecnologie alimentari
Academic discipline AGR/15
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents The Course gives to the Student theoretical and practical notions about the principal chemical, physical and instrumental methods for the determination of the chemical composition of foods. Moreover, the program includes notions about the statistical treatment of analytical data and multivariate statistical analysis.
Reference texts Didactic and additional material by the teacher, distributed free of charge.
COZZI R., PROTTI P., RUARO T. Elementi di chimica analitica strumentale - Tecniche di analisi per Chimica e materiali, Zanichelli, Bologna.
AMANDOLA G., TERRENI V. Analisi chimica strumentale e tecnica, Zanichelli, Bologna.
BAUER H.H., CHRISTIAN G.D., O'REILLY J.E. Analisi strumentale, Piccin Nuova Libraria, Padova.
CABRAS P., TUBEROSO C.I.G. Analisi dei prodotti alimentari, Piccin Nuova Libraria, Padova.
CAPPELLI P., VANNUCCHI V. Chimica degli Alimenti. Conservazione e trasformazione, Zanichelli, Bologna.
Educational objectives The Course aims to provide students information both theoretical and practical on the main chemical, physical and instrumental analytical methods used in determining the chemical composition of foods including statistical treatment of analytical data. In particular, take into account the processing and the interpretation of analytical data using univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Recalling the theory of acid-base systems, analyzing the formulas for calculating the pH of solutions of acids and bases and buffer solutions, indicators of pH and acid-base titrations. Review the redox reactions and notions about redox titrations. Also provide knowledge on the determination of density and of various instrumental methods used in the food analysis.

The main knowledge will be on:
- acquisition of experimental data and their processing with univariate and bivariate statistical analysis including the error measurement and its propagation;
- methods of multivariate statistics: Principal Component Analysis (PCA); Analysis of Latent Variables conducted using the method of Partial Least Squares (PLS); optimization by the method of Response Surface Modeling (RSM);
- theory of acid-base reactions, pH and its calculation in some solutions of acids and bases, buffer solutions, pH indicators, acid-base titrations;
- theory of redox reactions, potentiometric measurement of pH, redox indicators, redox titrations;
- determination of density;
- refractometry, polarimetry, nephelometry and turbidimetry;
- UV-VIS spectrophotometry, colorimetry, fluorimetry;
- infrared spectroscopy;
- atomic absorption spectroscopy;
- types of chromatography;
- mass spectrometry;

The student should be able, applying their knowledge, to get the following capabilities of being able to do (skills):
- manage the problems present in a laboratory, from collecting sample to the final result;
- acquire and process experimental data using statistical analysis considering also the error in the final result;
- critically interpret the results of a chemical, physical and instrumental analysis;
- choose the chemical, physical or instrumental methods most suitable for the various analytical determinations in foods;
- describe and critically evaluate the chemical composition of foods;
- associate the qualitative and quantitative composition of the various components of foodstuffs to their properties.
Prerequisites In order to successfully follow the course lessons it is desirable to have mathematical notions inherent logarithmic functions, derivation and integration, as well as general knowledge of inorganic and organic chemistry.
Teaching methods The course is organized in theoretical lessons (face-to-face) on the topics reported in the program (42 hours), in practical lessons (10 hours) and in practice (4 turns of 2 hours each).
Other information The teacher meets the students for clarifications and insights, by appointment, at the following address:
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences-- Research Unit of Food Science and Technology, Via San Costanzo, Perugia - 1st floor.
Learning verification modality The examination consists in an oral discussion of about 30-45 minutes suitable for ascertain the level of knowledge, the understanding reached by the student on the topics covered during lessons and reported in the program, as well as enabling the verification of its communication skills, including assessment of the language properties, the ability to apply the acquired knowledge and develop solutions in independent judgment.
The questions will focus on aspects relating to statistical processing of analytical data collected on food samples and chemical, physical and instrumental analytical methods commonly used in foods.
Extended program Face-to-face lessons.
Acquisition and statistical processing of experimental data.
Acquisition of experimental data and their processing with univariate and bivariate statistical analysis used to evaluate the error of measurements. Error propagation. Will be provided some notions of multivariate statistical analysis considering the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Latent Variables Analysis conducted using the method of Partial Least Squares (PLS) and optimization using the response surface method (RSM).
Chemical and physical analysis.
Recalls on the theory of acid-base systems. Definition of pH. Calculation of pH for solutions of strong acids and bases, weak acids and bases, polyprotic acids. Buffer solutions. pH indicators. Acid-base titrations. Redox reactions. Potentiometric pH measurement. Oxidation-reduction indicators. Redox titrations. Determination of density by hydrometers, Westphal balance, hydrostatic balance and pycnometer.
Instrumental analysis.
Refractometry. Polarimetry. Turbidimetry and nephelometry. UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Lambert-Beer law. Colorimetry. Fluorimetry. Infrared spectroscopy. Atomic absorption.
Chromatography: are considered the four separation mechanisms such as adsorption, partition, ion exchange and exclusion size, which are exploited in various types of chromatography (thin layer, column, high performance liquid [HPLC] and gas chromatography). Mass spectrometry: General theoretical principles, coupling with liquid and gas chromatography.

Classroom training.
Processing and interpretation of analytical data using univariate statistical analysis, bivariate and multivariate.

Practical training.
Chemical, physical and instrumental practical training conducted on certain foods.
Obiettivi Agenda 2030 per lo sviluppo sostenibile The objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that the Course intends to pursue are: Zero hunger; Good health and well-being; Industry, innovation and infrastructure.
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