Animal science
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Andrea Onofri
Course Regulation
Coorte 2022
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code 85004806
Teacher Andrea Onofri
  • Andrea Onofri
  • 54 ore - Andrea Onofri
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline del sistema agro-zootecnico
Academic discipline AGR/02
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents 1) Environmental factors (climate and soil) that affect field crop productions. 2) Main characteristics of soils. 3) Crops and cropping systems.
Reference texts F.Bonciarelli, U.Bonciarelli, Agronomia, Edagricole Scolastico-RCS Scuola, 2003.
Compendium: compilation of relevant literature, notes of lecturer, etc.
Educational objectives Students are expected to reach the following results:
1 - having acquired knowledge about agriculturall climatology, they are able to understand the role of climate on yield potential, recognising the constraints posed on the selection of crop species.
2 - having reached an adequate knowledge about pedology and soil hydrology, students are able to understand the contraints posed to cop productivity
3 - being able to recognise plants and seeds of the main crop species
4 - having a good level of knowledge about the peculiar aspects of the main crop species and their role within the forage system
5 - having a good level of knowledge about the ecophysiological needs of the main forage crop species
6 - being able to assess the potential yield of forage crops
Prerequisites In general, no pre-requisites are necessary, as all main basic knowledge is summarised at the beginning of each lesson. However, it may be useful for students to have some basic knowledge about plant biology, botanical classification, flower and fruit morphology for the main crop species that are the object of this course (see programme).
Teaching methods Theoretical lessons and practical training
Field trips
Seminar lectures with audiovisual material
Other information All relevant information about this course is presented on the appropriate webpage, within the UNISTUDIUM server.
Learning verification modality Preliminary assessments, in UNISTUDIUM. For each of the most important topic, students must take three quizzes, based on multiple choice questions. The quizzes are to be taken on UNISTUDIUM, before sitting for the final exam and two attempts for each quiz will be allowed.

2. Final oral exam
Extended program LECTURES
A. Climate (2CFU): relevant phenomena to agricultural meteorology: radiation, precipitations, temperatures, wind, ET; measurement and data collection.
B. Soil (1CFU): basic concepts in soil science and applications: soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Soil-water relationship.Economical importace, botanical characters, environmental C. Crop resources:
1) winter cereals: soft and durum wheat, barley, oat, rye and Triticosecale.;
2) summer cereals: maize and sorghum. Grain legumes (soyabean, faba bean, pea, lupin);
3) forage crops: pastures, meadows and annual forages. Introduction to industrial crops (sugar-beet and sunflower).
4) Harvest and utilisation of forage crops. Grazing, haymaking and silage. (1.5 CFU)
Meteorological data collection and analysis; instruments. Determinations concerning soil physical and hydrological characteristics. Identification of crop seeds and plants for all relevant species. Seed analysis. Field visits to observe the main agricultural operations.


Code 85114806
Teacher Giacomo Tosti
  • Giacomo Tosti
  • 54 ore - Giacomo Tosti
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline del sistema agro-zootecnico
Academic discipline AGR/02
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Cropping techniques of the most important crops in forage systems. Harvest and utilization of forage crops.
Reference texts F. BONCIARELLI e U. BONCIARELLI. Coltivazioni erbacee, Calderini, Edagricole, Bologna, 1989.
Materiale integrativo del docente, per la coltivazione e conservazione dei foraggi
Educational objectives At the end of the Course the student has attained the following skill level:

1 - has a good level of knowledge about the crops and cropping techniques (fertilisation, irrigation, weed mangement)
2 - he knows how to menage the excess of rainfall water
3 - he knows some simple tillage scenarios, to prepare the seedbed of the main crops
4 - he is able to determine sowing rates for the main crops
5 - he is able to plan correct fertilisation plans
6 - he is able to determine irrigation needs and irrigation volumes
7 - he has attained a good level of knowledge on the agronomic aspects of forage harvest and storage
Prerequisites The main pre-requisite is to have studied and understood the contents of the first module (Agronomy)
Teaching methods The Course is organised as follows:
Lectures on all main subjects, as detailed above
Practicals on: identification of plants and seeds, determination of seed rates, determination of water and fertiliser requirements for the main forage crops, cereals and legumes.
Seminars on: yield quality for cereals, main cereal diseases and problems relating to mycotoxins
Other information The main info in this course can be found in the UNISTUDIUM platform
Learning verification modality Assessment 2. Forage systems. This assessment is composed by two different parts
1. Written exam, based on 20 open answer questions on the whole programme of forage systems. Each correct answer corresponds to a score of 0.5-2 (depending on the question) and the final mark is equal to the sum of scores obtained in all questions. Wrong answers give no score (45 minutes)
2. Oral exam
Extended program The course is aimed at presenting all the crops which have a potential interest in forage systems, with particular reference to their cropping techniques, aimed at optimising crop-environment-animal relationships in respect of environmental sustainability.
Drainage: purposes and benefits; surface and subsurface drainage; soil erosion in sloping areas.
Soil tillage: methods and their effects on different soils; outlines on farm implement and machinery.
Irrigation and crop management: water quality; water requirements; field irrigation methods.
Crop rotation; crop sowing techniques; seed: requirements and quality.
Principles of crop fertilization: mineral fertilizers and organic manures; impact of fertilization on environment; soil amendement and correction.
Outlines on weed control techniques.

Sowing, fertilisation and irrigation plans. Simulation of cropping systems
Obiettivi Agenda 2030 per lo sviluppo sostenibile 2,3,12
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