Animal science
Study-unit Code
In all curricula
Luca Avellini
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code GP004369
Teacher Luca Avellini
  • Luca Avellini
  • 54 ore - Luca Avellini
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Discipline della sanità animale
Academic discipline BIO/10
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Structure and chemical properties, of functional groups present in Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and nucleic acids. Basic enzymology. Function and metabolism of the main biomolecules in relation to the features of organs and different animal species. Basic concept and design of
metabolism of the Rumen flora. Bioenergetics and interrelationships between different metabolisms, their respective regulatory processes with particular reference to farm animals.
Reference texts F.A. Bettelheim, W.H. Brown, M.K. Campbell, S.O. Farrell, O.J. Torres. Chimica e propedeutica biochimica - II Edizione Edises, 2014; M.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox "Principi di Biochimica di Lehninger" Zanichelli
The student must have knowledge of:
- the chemical-physical properties and the reactivity of functional groups present in biological molecules;
- structural classification and metabolic properties of carbohydrates, lipids, aminoacids and nucleotides;
- the metabolic pathways, their integrations and regulations;
At the end of the course the student must have developed the following skills:
- recognise functional chemical groups in biological macromolecules and predict their chemical reactivity:
- understanding the function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, enzyme kinetics, the enzymatic kinetic and bioenergetics;
- competence to discuss on the individual reactions of metabolic pathways in a reasoned way.
- appropriate know how for understanding the metabolic specificity of organs and tissues, and the differences between species;
- understand, recognize and provide for the different metabolic adaptations consequent to feeding or environmental changes as well as animal physiological and welfare needs;
The student must be able to argue critically and independently the connections between chemistry and biology and the expected homeostatic adaptations following changes, both normal and pathological, on metabolism or diet.
At the end of the training, the student must be able to organize and expose the acquired knowledge supporting them with argumentative rigor, completeness, language properties and connection skills into other contexts both in written and oral form.
At the end of the course the student will be able to:
- integrate autonomously the acquired knowledge by consulting and understanding scientific texts, bibliographic updates, so as to employ them in different contexts, including research;
- use the acquired know-how to understand the contents of the subsequent teachings such as molecular biochemistry, physiology and nutrition.
Teaching methods 40 hours: theoretical face-to-face lectures on topics referred in the program; 14 hours: lectures as seminar, practical training and written or oral revision of the topics covered in the lectures.
Other information Slides used by the teacher for lessons will be available on-line.
According to groups of students, meetings will be conducted close to examination sessions,
in the classrooms of educational Pole, for review the program.
The teacher becomes available (by prior arrangement) even outside of official office hours (Tues. and Thurs. 13-14) for explanations about the topics of the program.
According to the availability that the University will communicate at the beginning of each AA, special training in tutoring will be given by PhD students or worth students , according to a schedule published on the website of the Department and approved by the teacher
Learning verification modality
The biological molecules: Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides and steric series: aldoses and ketoses, cyclic structures and hemiacetals, aldol condensation, keto-enol tautomerism and interconversion between aldoses and ketoses; glycosidic bond and formation of acetals, di- and poly-saccharides. Lipids - Fatty acids and esterification, glycerolipids, amphipathic molecules, micelles and bilayers. Sterols. Biological membrane model, mesomorfism. thermotropic and concept of membrane fluidity. Poteins - Amino acids and their reactions: zwitterion, decarboxylation, deamination, alpha-beta elimination, hemiamminal and Shiff bases, the role of pyridoxal phosphate. The peptide bond, the 4 levels of protein structure, conformational changes, denaturation and renaturation. Nucleotides.

Introduction to metabolism: Membrane transports (simple and facilitated diffusion, transporters and channels, primary and secondary active transport, affinity, specificity and Vmax). Cell compartmentalization. Enzymes: classification, kinetics and control; coenzymes and cofactors, Michaelis–Menten kinetics:V0, Vmax and Km. Stationary state. pH and temperature effect. Regulation of enzyme activity: homotropic and heterotropic allosteric regulation (cooperativity, hemoglobin); reversible covalent modification, the second messenger, signal amplification. Automatic regulation: thermodynamic and kinetic. Principles of hormonal regulation. Organization of metabolism, high free -energy of hydrolysis bonds, ATP cycle (4 use procedures and 4 ways for the synthesis of ATP).
Carbohydrate metabolism - Source and fate of glucose, hesokinaseand glucokinase role; Glycolysis: reactions of the two phases, metabolism of other monosaccharides. Fate of pyruvate (lactate dehydrogenase and the complex of decarboxylation of pyruvate); Gluconeogenesis: origin of precursors, specific reactions; reciprocal regulation of Gluconeogenesis and Glycolysis, bifunctional enzyme and fructose-6,2-bisphosphate. Synthesis and degradation of glycogen, the role of UDP-glucose, allosteric and covalent regulation of glycogen metabolism. Cori cycle.
Last stage of metabolism - Source of acetyl-CoA, Krebs cycle: reactions, amphibolic role, role of oxaloacetate, anaplerotic reactions; reciprocal regulation of pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Respiratory chain: electron transporters and potential redox, cycle of ubiquinone, the proton pumps, the proton gradient as a form of energy storage (translocase of adenylic nucleotides and Thermogenin); Oxidative phosphorylation. Regulation by energy charge. Energy yield. The shuttle systems (malate-aspartate and glycerol-phosphate).
Lipid, Amino acid and Rumen metabolism, metabolic relationships -Transport of blood lipids. Acyl-CoA synthetase, role of of carnitine and transport regulation, beta-oxidation of saturated, unsaturated and odd number of C fatty acids: reactions and energy efficiency; synthesis and meaning of ketone bodies. Synthesis of palmitate, elongation and desaturation reactions, transport of citrate and role of malic enzyme. Amino acids glucogenic and lipogenic, trans-deaminations, role of alanine and glutamine. Role and importance of glutamate DH. Transport and disposal of amino nitrogen (ureogenesis). Rumen metabolism (carbohydrate, lipid and protein methabolism) and relationships with the host organism. The three stages of glucose metabolism, Pentose-phosphate pathway, the fates of pyruvate, volatile fatty acids. Biohydrogenation and methanogenesis.
Metabolic interrelationships.
Practical Lessons:
Collegial discussion, practical exercises with molecular models and written or oral review of the topics covered in the theoretical lessons (18 hours)
Obiettivi Agenda 2030 per lo sviluppo sostenibile


Code GP004370
Teacher Giovanni Bistoni
  • Giovanni Bistoni
  • 54 ore - Giovanni Bistoni
Learning activities Base
Area Discipline chimiche
Academic discipline CHIM/03
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Stoichiometry bases. Atomic structure and chemical bond. Redox reactions. Thermodinamic and chemical equilibrium. Equilibria in aqueous solutions. Chemical kinetics. Fundamentals of organic chemistry.
Reference texts F.A. Bettelheim, W.H. Brown, M.K. Campbell, S.O. Farrell, O.J. Torres.
Chimica e propedeutica biochimica - II Edition Edises, 2014
Educational objectives The main objective of the course is to provide students with the basic concepts of general and organic chemistry. Students will acquire adequate scientific language and the ability to study the topics covered in a critical and reasoned manner.
The main knowledge acquired will be:
- Atomic theory and electronic structure of atoms.
- Chemical bonding and molecular geometries.
- Intermolecular forces.
- Chemical reactions.
- Chemical equilibrium in aqueous solution.
- Principles of organic chemistry.

Main skills (ability to apply acquired knowledge):
- represent inorganic molecules or molecular ions by highlighting the orientation of the atoms and the bonds between them;
- predict the geometry, polarity and physical state of molecules;
- predict the reactivity of the most common inorganic and organic compounds.
Prerequisites The student must possess basic knowledge acquired with the diploma of high school.
Teaching methods Lectures, tutorials.
Lectures: Lectures will be conducted with the aid of the blackboard and slides.
Numerical exercises.
The teaching material (slides, exercises, texts of previous written tests) is available to students on the UNISTUDIUM platform.
Learning verification modality Written test (lasting 2 hours) which requires that the student completes matematic tasks and questions about the topics covered so far. Final oral exam about the whole program, after the written test.
Extended program Introduction and stoichiometry bases: Chemical compounds and elements. Fundamental laws of the chemistry and Dalton atomic theory. Mass number, atomic number, isotope, ion.
The mole concept, atomic and molecular mass. Chemical formulae. Reactions: Reagents and products, balancement of chemical equations, limiting reagents, stoichiometric calcolations.

Atoms e molecules: atomic structure, The quantum numbers and energy levels, atomic orbitals, the periodic system of the elements, electronegativity, valence, oxidation number, octet rule, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond polarity. Nomenclature and binary and ternary compound structures: oxides and anhydrides, hydroxides and oxoacids, hydrides and hydracids, inorganic salts.
Redox: redox equations with the ionic-electronic method.

States of the matter: the gaseous state, laws of the ideal gas. Solids and liquids: vapor pressure.

Solutions and their properties: Solution formation, Dissociation of solutes, solvent and solute, aqueous solutions. Measure unit of theconcentration. Raoult’s law. Dilutions. Colligative properties: Osmotic pressure.

Chemical thermodinamic: heat and work, convention, Internal energy. The first law of thermodynamics. Enthalpy, thermochemistry. Reversible reactions and spontaneous reactions. Entropy. Second law of thermodynamic. Free energy of Gibbs. Spontaneity of the processes at constant pressure and temperature. Equilibrium constant.

Reazioni ed equilibri chimici in soluzione: Sali poco solubili e prodotto di solubilità, effetto dello ione a comune. Reazioni acido-base. Acidi e basi secondo Brønsted e Lowry, coppie coniugate, prodotto ionico dell’acqua, il pH, costante di dissociazione di acidi e basi deboli, calcolo del pH di soluzioni di acidi e basi deboli e loro sali, Soluzioni tampone, Potere tampone, Indicatori acido-base. Acidi poliprotici.

Reactions and equilibrium chemistry in aqueous solution: Solubility of salts and solubility product. Effect of an ion in common. Acid-base reactions. Definition of acid and base according to Bronsted-Lowry. Ampholytes. Water autoprotolysis. pH. Strong and weak acids and bases. Relative strength of acids and bases. Dissociation constants Ka and Kb. Polyprotic acids. Buffer solutions. Calculations for the determination of the equilibrium concentration in the buffers. Acid-base Indicators.

Chemical kinetic: The rate of reaction, Kinetic order, Kinetic laws. Effect of temperature. Reaction mechanisms, activation energy, Arrhenius equativo, catalysts.

Organic Chemistry: ibridation of the carbon, s e pbonds. Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Benzene and aromatic compounds, resonance and coniugated bonds. Functional groups and nomenclature: Alcools, Thioalcools, Ethers, Amines; Aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, Amides, Esters, Alogenures, heterocyclic Compounds.
Structural Isomerie and conformations, position isomers and geometric isomers, chirality.

Organic Reactions: Sostitution, addition and elimination; radicals, nucleophilics ed electrophilics; carboanions, carbocations and their stability. Reactivity of the principal functional groups.
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