Electronic engineering for the internet-of-things
Study-unit Code
Consumer and aerospace iot
Course Regulation
Coorte 2022
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa integrata


Code 70A00108
Teacher Paolo Mezzanotte
  • Paolo Mezzanotte
  • 48 ore - Paolo Mezzanotte
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Ingegneria elettronica
Academic discipline ING-INF/02
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction Italian
Contents Impedance transformations, Passive components for integrated circuits, Analysis of microwave networks, Elements of guided propagation for planar structures, Planar RF components and devices, RF filters, interconnections, SIW technology, Conventional fabrication technologies, Use of Electromagnetic CAD for passive microwave circuit design, Radiofrequency measurements with Vector Network Analyzer, EM characterization of materials, Innovative fabrication technologies
Reference texts Downloadable transparencies from: https://www.unistudium.unipg.it/unistudium/
T. C. Edwards, "Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design," J.Wiley & Sons, 1988.
D.M Pozar, "Microwave Engineering," J.Wiley & Sons, 3rd edition, 2004.
R.N. Simons, "Coplanar waveguide circuits, components and systems," J.Wiley & Sons, 2001.
Materials provided by the lecturer and available online.
Educational objectives Provide the tools to understand the basic concepts of guided electromagnetic propagation and the operating and design principles of the main passive circuits constituting innovative Systems for IoT.
Prerequisites Electromagnetic Fields and Radio Frequency Engineering.
Teaching methods the teaching is delivered with lectures that make use of IT tools (recordings, virtual whiteboard in the cloud, projection of slides).
Other information None
Learning verification modality Oral interview on the program carried out.
Design of a circuit assigned by the teacher
Extended program Impedance transformations
Moving to the Smith Chart. L-shaped networks. Circles with constant Q
Passive components for integrated circuits
Integrated inductors and circuit models; merit factor; parasitic elements. Integrated transformers and circuit models; coupling factor. Integrated resistors and capacitors: sizing.
Analysis of microwave networks
Equivalent voltages and currents. Representation of a microwave circuit through an N-port network: short-circuit impedance matrix, no-load admittance matrix, scattering matrix, transmission matrix and related properties. Calculation of matrices of elementary circuits, T and P networks, line trunks. Moving the reference planes.
Guided propagation elements for planar structures
Microstrip: static and dynamic analysis, effective dielectric constant, characteristic impedance, planar guide model. Coplanar guide, strip-line.
Planar RF components and devices
Resonators. Attenuators. Phase shifters. Power divider / combiner, resistive divider, Wilkinson divider, circulator. Directional couplers: characteristic parameters and scattering matrix. Lange coupler. Rat-race. Branch-Line. Hybrid junction applications.
Radio frequency filters.
Low pass prototype, synthesis of the low pass prototype, frequency transformations, immittance inverters, band pass filters, planar filters (combline, interdigited, hairpin,.)
Coaxial / Microstrip cable transition, microstrip / coplanar transition, vertical connection via via-hole, Bonding-wire, Air-bridge.
SIW technology
Operating principles, design of passive devices
Conventional manufacturing technologies
Multilayer technologies (PCB, LTCC, Silicon)
Use of Electromagnetic CAD for the design of passive microwave circuits
Tutorial on the operation and use of the commercial CST software, design of passive microwave structures with the aid of CAD EM.
Radio Frequency Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer
Architecture of a vector network analyzer, measurement errors, calibration techniques
EM characterization of materials
Estimate of the dielectric constant of materials such as, paper, fabrics, plastics using resonance and guide techniques
Innovative manufacturing technologies )inkjet printing, 3D printing)


Code 70A00111
Teacher Luca Roselli
  • Luca Roselli
  • 48 ore - Luca Roselli
Learning activities Caratterizzante
Area Ingegneria elettronica
Academic discipline ING-INF/01
Type of study-unit Obbligatorio (Required)
Language of instruction ITALIAN
Contents The Internet of Things (IoT) “eco-system” and its implications on the design, development and manufacturing of electronic systems enabling the creation of smart objects.

Hints on the use of CAD (Keysight ADS) for the design of electronic systems and circuits.

Non conventional materials for the manufacturing of electronics circuits (paper as a paradigm).

Unconventional material implications on the design of electronic systems and circuits.

RFID systems and sensors, chipless RFID, Harmonic RFID.

RADAR sensors.

RF energy harvesting systems and RF-DC converters

Electronic systems based on distributed approaches over large surfaces “Large Area Electronics” Systems (LAE-Systems), Smart Surfaces (SS).

Heterogeneous energy scavenging systems (RF, Thermal, solar, cynetic).

Systems in Objects (SiO) or Embedded in Objects (ESiO).

Wearable electronics.
Reference texts L. Roselli, “Green RFID Systems”, Cambridge University Press 2014.
Educational objectives The course represents the lending of the whole teaching route towards the design of analog electronic systems and circuits enabling the manufacturing of smart objects as the lowest physical layer of the IoT “eco-system”. The layer, in fact, able to acquire information from the environment and transfer it to the layers above.

The main goal consists, hence, to provide students with the basic competences to face the study of electronic systems compatible with the constraints stated by smart objects and their functionalities in terms of costs, basic functionalities (sensing and transmission), autonomy, ambient compatibility, manufacturing process compatibility, life cycle.

The main competences acquired will be related to:
- circuit and system design paradigm shift
- “non conventional material” use
- working principles of communication systems “on demand” (RFID)
- passive sensors
- energy harvesting systems
- new trade-off between cost and performance
- adaptation of the use of the CAD to the design of circuits and systems for IoT
- wearable electronics
Prerequisites - Circuit theory fundamental laws (Ohm, Kirchhoff, Thevenin - indispensabile)
- Electronic device modeling (linear models, non linear models for small and large signals) - indispensabile
- High frequency circuit design basic principle (power matching, impedance transformation, guided propagation.) important
- Awareness of basic concepts such as: gain, noise figure, saturation, stability. important.
Teaching methods In the introducing phase, the course will be inserted in the evolutionary contest of the electronics, starting from the history of the electronics, passing by the analysis of the present state of the technology, till conceiving new scenarios and related challenges.

The core of the course will follow mainly a top-down approach.

It will start from a description of the IoT “eco-system” as an ambient where the electronic systems operate. After that the boundary conditions posed by the reference environment to the solution of technical and design problems will be defined. After that, some characterizing exemplifying systems and the related development will be described. Contextually, designing techniques and tools will be described, by means of a large use of examples inherited by the most recent scientific literature as well as from the research activity carried on in our laboratories in the last decade.
Other information none
Learning verification modality The evaluation of the student will be done by means of an interview. Such an interview will begin with the discussion about the results of a specific project committed to the student around the end of the first part of the course. After that the interview will concern, more generally the topic dealt with during the course.
Extended program Presentation of the course
Introduction – IoT and Smart Objects
- Internet of Things (IoT)
- the smart objects

RFID Systems
- Historical hints
- demonstration of working
- RFID system architecture
- RFID system classification

Chip-less RFID
- Time Domain Response (TDR)
- SAW tag
- Frequency Domain Response (FDR)

Harmonic RFID Systems
- The dawn
- one bit tracking sensor
- Example of one bit crack sensor
- Harmonic architecture with Wheastone bridge
- subsystem description
- analysis and limits
- multi-bit systems with polarization modulation

Radar and radar sensors
- Direct reflection Chipless RFID vs radar
- Effetto Doppler
- Doppler radar sensor architecture
- Block diagram
- Functional blocks:
- Analysis and design of structural blocks:
- Oscillator
- Branch-line
- Mixer
- Antenna

Wireless Power Transfer:
- Historical hints
- Working principles
- Characterization
- Wireless Power Transfer NF-IPT:
- IPT – “a bad transformer”
- Coupling coefficient
- Resonant systems

Semi additive technologies

Energy Harvestig:
- Similarities and Synergies between WPT and EH
- Energy sources
- RF Energy Harvesting
- Rectenna

Wearable electronics:
- Antennas for fabrics
- “non-ohmic” contact example

Smart surfaces:
- Smart floor
- Smart path
- quasi optics
- Energy Harvesting surfaces
- Gaussian beam Energy Harvesting

Industrial application of IoT Electronics: some examples from the technology transfer experience of the University of Perugia.
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