Geosciences for risk and environment management
Study-unit Code
Geologia applicata alla salvaguardia e alla pianificazione del territorio
Daniela Valigi
  • Daniela Valigi
  • 73 ore - Daniela Valigi
Course Regulation
Coorte 2023
Learning activities
Discipline geomorfologiche e geologiche applicative
Academic discipline
Type of study-unit
Obbligatorio (Required)
Type of learning activities
Attività formativa monodisciplinare
Language of instruction
The elements of the hydrological cycle. Water budget. Case studies. Groundwater monitoring. Legislation. Darcy’s equation. Flowpath. Well hydraulics.
Determination of aquifer parameters (hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storativity) in steady-state and non-equilibrium conditions. Confined and unconfined aquifer Capture zone of a well pumping from an aquifer with a uniform hydraulic gradient. Step-drawdowns tests. Springs. Spring. Groundwater monitoring.
Reference texts
•Fetter C.W. (2001) Applied Hydrogeology Prentice-Hall. New Jersey and CD Visual MODFLOW vers. 2.8.2.
•Freeze, R. A., & Cherry, J. A. (1979). Groundwater: Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey.
• Recommended textbooks:
• Celico P. (1986) Prospezioni idrogeologiche. Vol. 1 e 2 - Liguori Editore.
• Civita M. (2005) Idrogeologia Applicata e Ambientale. CEA.
• Francani V. (2014) Idrogeologia Ambientale. CEA
• Todd D.K. e Larry W.M. (2005) Groundwater Hydrology - Wiley
Copies of the slides presented in class by the teacher.
Educational objectives
Knowledge of the processes of the hydrological cycle, with particular
regard to groundwater.
The student should be capable to:
• quantify the water resources of a system using the water budget;
• interpret hydrogeological maps;
• use the techniques for the estimation of
hydrogeological parameters of aquifers (confined and phreatic);
• design and manage field water wells;
The student will be able to relate with or enter, the professional world, particularly with public and private institutions
that deal with the management of water resources, and will be aware of the use of groundwater modelling for water management.
The acquisition of basic knowledge will also be useful to undertake research in hydrogeology.
To properly understand the topics treated in this course it is necessary to have adequate knowledge of Physics (particularly fluid mechanics),
applied geology and structural geology. Furthermore, it is necessary to know derivatives and to be able to calculate simple integrals. The required background is given by the courses in Mathematics, Physics, Applied Geology and Geology of the MSc in Geology of this and other Universities.
Teaching methods
The course is composed of "ex-cathedra" lectures and exercise sessions.
The exercise sessions are organized in direct relation to the topics covered by the theory lectures. Usually, two hours of lecture are followed
by an exercises session of two hours by PC. Practical lessons include a field trip to springs or well fields.
Other information
For exam and lessons dates, please see the following website:
Office address:
Section of Applied Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrogeology Department of Physics and Geology.
Via Faina, 4
06123 – Perugia
tel. +39 075 5840305
skype: daniela.valigi
Learning verification modality
The evaluation consists of an oral exam. The exam is designed to test the ability to
estimate hydrogeological aquifer parameters by pumping tests, hydraulic potentials, and the water budget of hydrological systems.
The goal of the oral exam is to evaluate theoretical knowledge gained by the students in terms of language.
To reach this goal, students will be asked to answer theoretical questions concerning the topics treated during the course.
The final evaluation will take into account all the mentioned aspects.
Information for students with disabilities is available at http://www.unipg.it/disabilita-e-dsa
Extended program
The hydrological cycle. Water budget. Evaporimeters. Determination of
areal rainfall (Thiessen and isohyet methods). Effective infiltration
coefficient and groundwater recharge in relation to geology.
Evaporation and evapotranspiration (Thornthwaite and Turc). Hydrogeological scheme of Central Italy. National and European water legislation. Groundwater monitoring. Case
studies of hydrogeological systems. Types of aquifers: confined,
unconfined and semiconfined. Hydraulic conductivity Darcy’s experiment.
Parameters. Flow nets. Piezometric map. Steady flow in an unconfined
aquifer: Thiem-Dupuit equation. Water Well Design. Well hydraulics. Determining aquifer parameters (transmissivity and storativity) from time-drawdown data.
Steady-state conditions in a confined aquifer: Steady radial flow (Thiem-Dupuit method). No equilibrium radial flow conditions in a confined
aquifer: Theis and Cooper-Jacob methods. Intersecting pumping cones and well interference.
Effect of hydrogeological boundaries: recharge and no-flow boundaries. Image well. Capture zone analysis: capture zone of a well pumping from an aquifer with a uniform hydraulic gradient. Wellhead protection areas delineation. Isochrones. Step-drawdowns tests: Jacob and Rorabough methods. Well efficiency. Springs. Recession curves: Maillet and Tison equations. Spring protection areas delineation. Forecasting methods of water resources in relation to climate change. Case study. Introduction to ground-water models.
Obiettivi Agenda 2030 per lo sviluppo sostenibile
The course aims to provide innovative technical and cognitive tools that can identify the best management methods to ensure the sustainable use of underground water resources, in line with the wishes of the "Green Deal" and the Sustainable Development Goals. The correct use of groundwater can make it possible to reduce the derivation of water from rivers, so as to avoid their overexploitation and the consequent effects of alteration of river ecosystems. The goal is to provide operational tools to predict the flows of karst and fractured carbonate springs, exploited for drinking water, in the context of climatic change in order to ensure the sustainable management of water resources.
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